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The Ultimate List of Adobe Lightroom Keyboard Shortcuts

Have a massive collection of photos? Adobe Lightroom provides you with the tools to organize, edit, store, and share those photos. So when you're ready to clean out your camera next time, Adobe Lightroom can streamline the process.

To help you sort your photo collection faster, we've collected the best Lightroom shortcuts. As another in-depth program, these ten categories will help you work across the entirety of Lightroom. These shortcuts range from module-specific to generalized use.

So whether you're needing to target one area in particular or just want to learn the program, these shortcuts will help you.

FREE DOWNLOAD: This cheat sheet is available as a downloadable PDF from our distribution partner, TradePub. You will have to complete a short form to access it for the first time only. Download the Ultimate List of Adobe Lightroom Keyboard Shortcuts Cheat Sheet.

Lightroom Keyboard Shortcuts

ShortcutAction
Photos and Catalog Shortcuts
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + IImport photos (from disk)
Right/Left ArrowNext/Previous Photo in Filmstrip
Ctrl/Cmd + RLibrary/Develop Modules - Show File in Explorer/Finder
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + EExport selected photo(s)
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + E / Cmd + Option + Shift + EExport selected photo(s) with previous settings
F2Rename Photo (Library Module)
Backspace/DeleteRemove selected photo(s)
Ctrl + Backspace / Cmd + DeleteDelete rejected photo(s)
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + Backspace / Cmd + Option + Shift + DeleteDelete selected photo(s) and send to Recycling Bin or Trash
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + POpen Page Setup
Ctrl/Cmd + PPrint selected photo
Ctrl/Cmd + , (comma)Open Preferences
Ctrl + O / Cmd + Shift + OOpen Catalog
Ctrl + Alt + , (comma) / Cmd + Option + , commaOpen Catalog Settings
Alt + Backspace / Option + DeleteCatalog - Remove selected photo(s)
Ctrl/Cmd + EEdit in Photoshop
Ctrl + Alt + E / Cmd + Option + EEdit in Other Program
Module Shortcuts
Ctrl + Alt + 1 / Cmd + Option + 1Library Module
Ctrl + Alt + 2 / Cmd + Option + 2Develop Module
Ctrl + Alt + 3 / Cmd + Option + 3Map Module
Ctrl + Alt + 4 / Cmd + Option + 4Book Module
Ctrl + Alt + 5 / Cmd + Option + 5Slideshow Module
Ctrl + Alt + 6 / Cmd + Option + 6Print Module
Ctrl + Alt + 7 / Cmd + Option + 7Web Module
Ctrl + Alt + Left Arrow / Cmd + Option + Left ArrowBack a Module
Ctrl + Alt + Right Arrow / Cmd + Option + Right ArrowForward a Module
Ctrl + Alt + Up Arrow / Cmd + Option + Up ArrowGo to Previous Module
Panel Shortcuts
TabSide Panels - Show/Hide
Shift + TabAll Panels - Show/Hide
TabToolbar - Show/Hide
F5Module Picker - Show/Hide
F6Filmstrip - Show/Hide
F7Left Panels - Show/Hide
F8Right Panels - Show/Hide
Changing Screen Modes and Views
Ctrl + Alt + F / Cmd + Option + FNormal Screen Mode
Ctrl + Shift + F / Cmd + Shift+ FFull Screen and Hide Panels
FCycle Screen Modes
Shift + FNext Screen Mode
Ctrl/Cmd + IInfo Overlay - Show/Hide
ICycle Info Overlay
ELibrary Loupe View
GLibrary Grid View
CLibrary Compare View
NLibrary Survey View
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + LLights Dim Mode - Toggle
ZZoom View - Toggle
Metadata and Keywords Shortcuts
Ctrl/Cmd + KAdd Keywords
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + KEdit Keywords
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + K / Cmd + Option + Shift + KSet a Keyword Shortcut
Alt/Option + 1-9Add a Keyword from Keyword Set to Selected Photo
Shift + KAdd/Remove Keyword Shortcut from Selected Photo
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + C / Cmd + Option + Shift + CCopy Metadata
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + V / Cmd + Option + Shift + VPaste Metadata
Ctrl/Cmd + SSave Metadata to File
Flagging and Filtering Photos
PFlag Photo - Pick
Shift + PFlag Photo - Pick and Go to Next Photo
XFlag Photo - Reject
Shift + XFlag Photo - Reject and Go to Next Photo
UUnflag Photo
Shift + UUnflag Photo and Go to Next Photo
' (back quote)Cycle Flag Settings
Ctrl/Cmd + LFilters - Toggle
Ctrl + Alt + R /Cmd + Option + RRefine Photos
Develop Module Shortcuts
VConvert to Grayscale
WSelect White Balance Tool
RSelect Crop Tool
AWhen Crop Tool is Selected (Constrain Aspect Ratio)
QSelect Spot Removal Tool
KSelect Adjustment Brush Tool
MSelect Graduated Filter Tool
Ctrl/Cmd + UAuto Tone
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + UAuto White Balance
JShow Clipping
Ctrl/Cmd + ]Rotate Photo Right (Clockwise)
Ctrl/Cmd + [Rotate Photo Left (Counterclockwise)
Slideshow Module Shortcuts
Enter/ReturnPlay Slide Show
Ctrl + Enter / Cmd + ReturnPlay Impromptu Slide Show
SpacebarPause Slide Show
Alt + Enter / Option + ReturnPreview Slide Show
EscEnd Slide Show
Right ArrowGo to Next Slide
Left ArrowGo to Previous Slide
Ctrl/Cmd + JExport PDF Slide Show
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + JExport JPEG Slide Show
Ctrl + Alt + J / Cmd + Option + JExport Video Slide Show
Print Module Shortcuts
Ctrl/Cmd + PPrint
Ctrl + Alt + P / Cmd + Option + PPrint One Copy
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + P / Cmd + Option + Shift + PPrint Settings
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + Left ArrowGo to First Page
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + Right ArrowGo to Last Page
Ctrl/Cmd + Left ArrowGo to Previous Page
Ctrl/Cmd + Right ArrowGo to Next Page
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + HGuides (Show/Hide)
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + MMargins and Gutters (Show/Hide)
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + JPage Bleed (Show/Hide)
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + KImage Cells (Show/Hide)
Ctrl/Cmd + Shift + UDimensions (Show/Hide)
Ctrl/Cmd + RRulers (Show/Hide)
Web Module Shortcuts
Ctrl/Cmd + JExport Web Gallery
Ctrl/Cmd + RReload Web Gallery
Ctrl/Cmd + SSave Web Gallery Settings
Ctrl + Alt + P / Cmd + Option + PPreview in Browser

Lightroom Magic: Taking Control of Your Photos

When you first start bringing your photos into Lightroom, it can seem like a lot. However, as you learn Lightroom's shortcuts, you'll see how everything integrates together.

From that point on, you can explore more of Lightroom's many benefits. For instance, try these free Lightroom presets for any occasion.

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The Best Graphics Tablets for Digital Artists and Designers

Cartoonists and comic creators are moving away from traditional pen and paper. Today, artists can use graphic tablets, which allow them to achieve the same results on their computers.

If you're just starting out on your digital art journey, you'll need to buy a graphic tablet. It doesn't matter whether you're learning to draw manga comics or you dream of becoming the next Joseph Barbera, having the correct tools is half the battle.

But which tablets are right for you? We're going to introduce you to some of the best graphic tablets across several categories.

Premium pick

1. Wacom Cintiq Pro 32

6.40 / 10
Read Reviews

Wacom's most expensive drawing tablet is the Cintiq Pro 32. As you'd expect, given the price, it's packed with features.

The flagship device has an active area of 27.44 x 15.43 inches, a color gamut of Adobe RGB 98 percent (CIE 1931), multitouch gestures, 8,192 levels of pressure sensitivity, and support for HMDI and USB-C.

The display is 4K, with a resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels. Radial menus, an on-screen keypad, and one-touch shortcuts also help the device to stand out. You even get a Wacom Pro Pen 2 for free in the box.

However, scratch a little deeper, and users have reported issues; the most common seems to be dead pixels. If you're a professional artist, that might be a dealbreaker.

Key Features
  • 31.5-inch touchscreen
  • 99% Adobe RGB and 97% sRGB color performance
  • 8,192 levels of pressure sensitivity
Specifications
  • Brand: Wacom
  • Active Area: 27.44 X 15.43 in
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 8,192
  • Connection: HDMI, USB-C, DIsplayPort
Pros
  • Includes a Wacom Pro Pen 2
  • 4K resolution (3840 x 2160 pixels)
  • Has a built-in stand
Cons
  • No Bluetooth connection
  • Very expensive
  • Broken on-screen pixels appear to be a recurring issue
Editors choice

2. Apple iPad Pro

9.80 / 10
Read Reviews

One reoccurring theme among the best drawing tablets on the market is a lack of support for iOS. If you are heavily reliant upon the Apple ecosystem, therefore, your best bet might be to buy an iPad Pro.

Sure, it's not a true drawing tablet; it's not going to give you the same pressure sensitivity and LPI as a dedicated device. However, unless you're a professional, it will meet the requirements for most digital artwork.

On the downside, you will need to buy the Apple Pencil stylus separately---and it's not cheap. Theoretically, any stylus will work, but the Apple Pencil includes iOS-specific features that you will not find elsewhere.

Key Features
  • Active area of 10.32 x 7.74 inches
  • All-screen liquid Retina display
  • Built-in camera
Specifications
  • Brand: Apple
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Connection: USB-C
Pros
  • Available in 128GB, 256GB, 512GB, and 1TB versions
  • Long battery life
Cons
  • Apple Pencil needs to be purchased separately
  • Expensive
  • Not a dedicated drawing tablet
Best value

3. Wacom Intuos Pro L

9.00 / 10
Read Reviews

If you're confident in your abilities and happy to spend the money on a quality tablet, you can't go far wrong with the Wacom Intuos Pro. The device is considerably cheaper than the market-leading Wacom Cintiq, but it still packs a powerful punch.

Some of the graphic tablet's key features include 8,192 levels of pressure sensitivity, a lag-free drawing experience, customizable ExpressKeys, a radial menu, and the ability to switch pen sides. The Pro Pen 2 is included. Wacom does offer other styluses, but they are more expensive and sold separately.

Wacom has also used anodized aluminum and fiberglass composite resin for the tablet's chassis, giving the device a premium feel. It weighs 2.86 pounds.

Key Features
  • Tilt recognition
  • Express keys
  • 5,080 LPI resolution
Specifications
  • Brand: Wacom
  • Active Area: 12.24 x 8.5 inches
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 8,192
  • Connection: USB, Bluetooth
Pros
  • Suitable for left and right-handed users
  • Stylus included
  • Pen stand included
Cons
  • No free software included
  • Pen stand could be more grippy

If digital cartoon design is a hobby rather than a career, you should consider the Huion HS610. You can pick one up for much less than some other devices in the space, yet it consistently scores highly among users.

The device uses a tilt control system (up to 60 degrees) to give you precise pressure detection and cursor positioning, and it boasts 8,192 levels of pressure sensitivity. You'll also get 5,080 LPI and 266 RPS, both of which combine for a natural drawing experience.

Other key features include 12 customizable press keys, 16 customizable soft keys, a touch ring, and Adobe Photoshop support.

Key Features
  • Compatible with Windows, Mac, Android
  • Up to 60 degrees of brush tilt
  • 5,080 LPI
Specifications
  • Brand: Huion
  • Active Area: 20.0 x 6.25 in
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 8,192
  • Connection: USB
Pros
  • Total of 28 customizable keys
  • Compatible with Photoshop
  • Touch ring function
Cons
  • No Bluetooth connection
  • No iOS support
  • Some users complain about connectivity issues
Buy This Product
Huion HS610 amazon
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The XP-Pen Deco Pro comes in two sizes---Small and Medium. The two editions are almost identical; the only significant difference is the size of the active area.

The Small edition feels cramped at 9 x 5 inches, so we recommend opting for the larger 11 x 6-inch Medium version. Straightaway, your eye is drawn towards the mechanical wheel that sits on one side of the tablet. Combined with an on-screen virtual wheel, that affords users an extra level of control while they are working.

There's also support for up to 60 degrees of tilt, 8,192 pressure sensitivity levels, a resolution of 5,080 LPI, and up to eight programmable shortcut keys.

Key Features
  • Active area of 11.0 x 6.0 inches
  • 60 degrees of tilt function
  • Mechanical wheel for easy navigation
Specifications
  • Brand: XP-Pen
  • Active Area: 11.0 x 6.0 inches
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 8,192
  • Connection: USB-C
Pros
  • Available in black and silver
  • Reasonably priced
  • Stylus included
Cons
  • Only supports USB-C connections
  • Only eight shortcut keys
  • Does not support iOS

Another reliable mid-range drawing tablet is the Huion Kamvas Pro 12. With 8,192 pressure levels and 5,080 LPI, it rivals more expensive options.
However, some of the other little flourishes help the Kamvas Pro 12 stand out.

They include a chemical-etched anti-glare glass to reduce eye strain, a fully customizable touch bar, four customizable press keys, and support for mouse clicks.

The colors are also impressive. The tablet has a 120 percent sRGB color gamut and 16.7 million display colors, allowing for a vivid on-screen image.

Key Features
  • 1920 x 1080 resolution
  • 1000:1 contrast ratio
  • 120 percent sRGB
Specifications
  • Brand: Huion
  • Active Area: 10.0 x 5.6 inches
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 8,192
  • Connection: USB
Pros
  • 16.7 (8-bit) colors
  • 5,080 LPI
  • Touch bar for navigation
Cons
  • No Bluetooth support
  • No HDMI connection
  • Screen is not 4K

The Wacom One was released at CES 2020 to much fanfare, as it became Wacom's cheapest drawing tablet to date.

Naturally, Wacom has had to make some compromises given the price. Perhaps the most notable compromise is the reduction to 4,096 pressure levels; most other graphic tablets have 8,192 levels.

Nonetheless, the Wacom One still has a built-in stand, a 13.3-inch screen, a screen resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels, 8-bit color, and a contrast ratio of 1000:1.

This is not the unit to buy if you're a professional in the market for a new primary device. However, if you're a beginner or a pro who's looking for a lightweight, portable option, it is definitely worth considering

Key Features
  • 1920 x 1080 pixels
  • 60 degrees of tilt
  • NTSC 72% (CIE1931) color gamut
Specifications
  • Brand: Wacom
  • Active Area: 11.6 x 6.5 inches
  • Multi-Touch Support: Yes
  • Pressure Sensitivity Levels: 4,096
  • Connection: HDMI, USB
Pros
  • An affordable option
  • Wacom stylus included
  • Won multiple awards at CES 2020
Cons
  • Only available in single color
  • No Bluetooth
  • Standard package does not include Express Key remote
Buy This Product
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FAQ

Q: What Is the Best Free Graphics Editing Program?

GIMP is a free and open-source alternative to Photoshop. It runs on all major operating systems and is designed to work smoothly with Wacom tablets.

The app provides most of the same core functionality as Photoshop offers (for 2D image editing) and is a true lifesaver for anyone who needs basic features while saving money.

Q: Can You Use a Drawing Tablet Without a Computer?

Yes---if the tablet has a screen so you can see your creation. Many models are also compatible with Android in case you want to draw while you are on-the-go.

Q: Are Cheap Drawing Tablets Good?

Like most things, the more you spend, the better the product you're going to end up with. However, if you're a beginner, a cheap drawing tablet is a great way to get started. Yes, some features might be missing, but they still offer everything you need to learn.

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Lightroom Vs. Photoshop: What Are the Differences? | MakeUseOf

It might not be immediately apparent, but many people aren't aware of the differences between Adobe Lightroom and Adobe Photoshop.

If you take a quick look at the feature set belonging to Photoshop and Lightroom, however, you'll see that they are both distinctly different applications.

Here, we take a look at how the two Adobe image editors differ and, by proxy, where their similarities occur. Let's see what sets Photoshop apart from Lightroom.

What Are Lightroom and Photoshop Used For?

The biggest difference between Photoshop and Lightroom is what they are intended to be used for.

While Photoshop started life as an application for raster graphics editing, it is now an industry standard for all manner of graphics editing and design.

So, Photoshop is not only capable of manipulating existing images, it can also be used to create images completely from scratch. It is intended as a graphics editor and has numerous tools associated with creating and editing graphics.

Lightroom on the other hand (what is Adobe Lightroom?), is designed solely with the conversion and editing of photographs in RAW image format. It is intended to be used by photographers who want to enhance their photos.

At its heart, Lightroom is a RAW file converter, but it also allows you to arrange your files (so acts as a file manager) and manipulate photographs too. However, unlike Photoshop, there are no design tools available in Lightroom.

So, Photoshop is intended to be used by graphic designers to create and manipulate raster graphics, while Lightroom is geared towards photographers who want to convert and enhance RAW image files.

What Can Lightroom Do That Photoshop Can't?

Lightroom might seem like a more simplistic tool than Photoshop, but that is because it is built around workflow rather than design. Here are a few of the main features that you'll find in Lightroom but not Photoshop.

Batch Editing

Need to apply the same changes to a whole bunch of images? Well, in that case, Lightroom should be your workhorse of choice.

Not only is the app able to apply batch editing to multiple files at once (saving you hours in the process) it can apply saved presets to the images, which can be downloaded from other sources, saving you even more hard work.

Non-Destructive Editing

If you are the type of person who changes their mind when they've edited an image and there's no way to recover the original file, then Lightroom offers a tool called "non-destructive editing".

Every time you make a change to an image, Lightroom creates a backup. So, no matter how many times you edit a photograph, you'll always be able to go back to a previous stage and recover the file.

RAW Editing

As mentioned, Lightroom is a RAW file editor so, if you take your shots in RAW format, then you can manipulate them straight away without the need for a specific tool. In this instance, Lightroom is the tool!

Photoshop requires you to have an additional plug-in called Adobe Camera RAW and doesn't work as an image editor for this kind of file---at least not straight out of the box. Lightroom does.

What Can Photoshop Do That Lightroom Can't?

As mentioned, Lightroom is a simplistic tool with the onus on smooth workflow. However, Photoshop is an incredibly powerful image creation and editing tool that packs features to the max.

Here are a few of the attributes that Photoshop possesses over Lightroom.

Expansive Tool Set

There is no denying that Photoshop has A LOT of tools. This can make it a fairly daunting space for the novice. However, it is these tools that give Photoshop a general advantage over Lightroom.

While Lightroom is great for carrying out strictly photo editing tasks, Photoshop can edit any image and can be used to make additions to an image such as text or other graphics. It can even be used to make a completely new, unique image from scratch.

Layer Editing

If you think about cutting out a snippet of one paper picture and then placing it over the top of another paper picture, then you have essentially made a new picture with different layers.

Photoshop works in the same way. You can copy and paste elements of another image into a separate image and Photoshop will recognize it as a new layer. You can even manipulate these layers separately to achieve different effects.

Photoshop also allows you to add shapes and text to an image, using the tools available in the toolbar. When you do this, they too will be added as a new layer, and everything can be manipulated independently.

You also have full control over layer placement, as Photoshop will allow you to bring one layer nearer the front of a stack of existing layers, or place it behind other layers.

Compositing

Sometimes you might find that an image has elements that distract from the subject. A trash can that has somehow made its way into the background of a wedding snap, for example.

With Photoshop's compositing tools, you can take snippets from elsewhere in your image and place them over any unsightly blemishes that you feel ruin your photo.

You can even take elements from totally separate images and use them for compositing purposes, such is the versatility provided by Photoshop.

Detailed Editing

Photoshop is so powerful that it can be used to edit the most minute details of an image. It works at pixel-level, so even if there is a speck one pixel wide in your image, Photoshop can deal with it.

Obviously, this means that you can make very subtle edits that can really improve your images and make them more appealing to those who view them. Lightroom isn't capable of this degree of editing.

Lightroom Vs. Photoshop

To be quite honest, we shouldn't really be thinking of Lightroom and Photoshop in a "versus" sense.

The two programs complement each other, so you can carry out batch edits across your images using Lightroom, then hone in on the details with Photoshop.

Which is where it will pay to know some of the basic Photoshop skills for beginners.

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How to Reset Adobe Photoshop’s Appearance Back to Default

One of the more overwhelming aspects about Photoshop for beginners is the sheer number of panels you have open, and how these panels can sometimes disappear.

If a panel you're used to working with has gone missing and you can't figure out where it went, there's a simple way to get Photoshop to look exactly how you're used to.

How to Restore Panels in Photoshop

If it's a matter of a missing panel, there's a very simple fix to this. Let's say the toolbar on the left has disappeared: just go to the Window option in the menu and make sure that Tools is checked.

The process is the same for any panel listed under the Window menu. Click it to select it and it will once again appear on your screen.

If there's a panel that you don't want to use, you can also close it by clicking on the menu button in the corner of the panel and clicking Close.

How to Reset Photoshop's Appearance Back to Default

If the entire program looks completely different to you, the chances are your workspace has been changed.

Photoshop has a series of pre-set workspaces that you can choose from. These workspaces will open up the panels that are useful to its users depending on what they're doing. To that end, they have a workspace for 3D design, graphic and web design, motion design, painting, and photography.

Adobe also offers the default Essentials workspace which is what you're probably accustomed to.

Related: How to Install Brushes in Adobe Photoshop

You can select your Workspace by going to Window > Workspace and selecting one of the options listed above.

If you've come back to Photoshop and you've found that the panels that you're used to are no longer open, just go to Window > Workspace > Reset Essentials. (If you're using one of the other workspaces offered by Photoshop, that's the one you should see listed under the Reset option.)

If none of these Workspaces cater exactly to your needs, you can open up all your panels and go to Window > Workspace > New Workspace and Photoshop will capture all your panel locations. It can also capture and keyboard shortcuts, menus, and toolbar options that you may have customized.

You can drag panels around, reorder them, close, open, or minimize them, until you have your Workspace looking exactly how you like it before you save it.

How to Reset All Tools in Photoshop

When you customize the settings of a tool in Photoshop, your settings are saved so you can use them the next time you edit an image. If you’re resetting Photoshop, you'll want to reset these tool settings, too.

Here's how you can do that:

  1. Select one of the tools from the toolbar. Remember, you’re resetting all the tools and not just the one you’ve selected.
  2. If you’re on Windows, hold down Ctrl and click on the tool icon at the top. Mac users need to hold down the Control button and click on the tool icon at the top.
  3. Select the Reset All Tools option.reset all tools in photoshop
  4. Hit OK in the prompt on your screen and all of your tools will be reset.

How to Reset All of Your Preferences in Photoshop

Photoshop saves your customized settings in a preference file. If you want to bring Photoshop back to how it was when you first installed it, you can delete the preferences file and that will fully reset the app.

Keep in mind that none of your settings will be preserved, so make a backup of anything that you will need later.

Related: The Ultimate Windows 10 Data Backup Guide

Then, follow these steps to fully reset Photoshop:

  1. Close Photoshop if it’s running on your computer.
  2. If you’re on Windows, press and hold down Shift + Ctrl + Alt and double-click on the Photoshop shortcut. If you use a Mac, press and hold down the Shift + Command + Option keys and launch Photoshop.
  3. You’ll get a prompt that asks if you want to delete the Photoshop settings file. Click Yes to continue.reset photoshop preferences

Photoshop should now be back to the factory settings.

Customizing Your Favorite Editor From Scratch

Once Photoshop is back to the default style, you can customize it as per your own preferences. You can move the panels around, configure default options for certain tools, hide and unhide various options, and so on. It's up to you how you rearrange the interface of your favorite image editor.

If Photoshop is your go-to app for all editing tasks, you should consider learning some useful Photoshop tips and tricks. These will let you uncover some hidden features and help make the most of this app on your machine.

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How to Build a Low-Cost YouTube Studio: 7 Things You’ll Need

Your YouTube videos are gaining popularity. You want to step up to the next level and build a dedicated YouTube studio, but there's a problem...

Money. Or at least a lack of it.

Should a lack of cash hold you back? Do you genuinely need a YouTube studio? And if you do, does it really need to cost as much as you think?

We're big fans of helping you save some cash here at MakeUseOf. So, let's find out how you can set up a YouTube studio for very little money.

Do You Really Need a YouTube Studio?

Before carrying on, however, it's time to take a good, hard look at the situation. Do you really need a YouTube studio?

We've already considered that lack of funds might scupper this plan. But what about a lack of space? After all, to build a YouTube studio, you need somewhere to put it. Without a spare room, nook, or space elsewhere, buying equipment for a YouTube studio seems somewhat pointless.

Meanwhile, if your YouTube channel is all about video game streaming, or relies on the slideshow format, with a simple voiceover or captions your YouTube studio already exists.

It's in your PC or tablet, in the form of a video editing app.

If you're certain you need a studio, take time to some thought to it. Is it for vlogging, or one of the other popular YouTube video types? Are you planning to record a lot of videos? Would it be easier to film in a studio or to use other rooms in your house?

The type of video you're creating will impact your YouTube studio choices. Are you creating how-tos, DIY, or cookery videos? All these video types typically require some specific location, such as a shed or kitchen. As such, is it practical to convert these areas into a studio?

The answer to this is probably "No". Therefore, if you really need a YouTube studio, you'll need to consider hardware that is easy to set up. Additionally, give a thought to portability and storage.

The Basic YouTube Studio Setup

If you're still certain that you want to build a YouTube studio, you'll need:

  • Camera
  • Tripod
  • Microphone
  • Lighting
  • Audio software
  • Video editing software
  • A usable background

Along with all of this, you'll need a computer, but you probably know that already. While it's possible to produce videos with a top-end iPad or Android tablet, a PC or Mac is more efficient.

Let's take a look at each element of the basic YouTube setup in turn.

1. Choose Your Camera

You have three camera choices for your YouTube setup and can even use two at the same time.

If you have a smartphone, then this is the option to use. Simply launch the camera app and start recording.

Almost any smartphone available since 2015 should be suitable, regardless of the manufacturer. Cameras are a key selling point for most manufacturers, so quality and clarity is almost a given.

The second option is to employ a DSLR in video mode. If you already own a DSLR, then this is the best choice. You get the option to switch lenses and delivers better quality than a smartphone, although the difference is ever narrowing.

Best of all, you can record footage on multiple cameras. Expecting your viewer to become a little distracted by a single, static shot of you opining? Simply record on your smartphone camera, positioned to the side (or perhaps above, like a security cam) for the "B-roll." You'll have a nice choice of shots when you come to edit.

Finally, if you're streaming games, a webcam should be all you need. Use an external device, rather than built in, however, as these are easier to position. Make sure you know how to live stream on YouTube.

2. Tripod

Most DSLR tripods available under $100 should suffice. Somewhere in the $25-$55 area on Amazon will give you a good, sturdy tripod ideal for home use.

Planning to use a smartphone? Various tripods are available for phones. Some DSLR tripods ship with smartphone adaptors. We've even shown you how to make a DIY smartphone stand. For this sort of scenario, however, one of the "mount anywhere" tripods will do the trick. These feature bendy legs, enabling you to attach your smartphone to walls, doors, pipes, etc.

For a secondary camera, this is a great option.

3. Add a Microphone to Your YouTube Setup

Built-in microphones are usually unsuitable for anything other than Skype calls. We would recommend a third-party mic for podcasting, and the same goes for making YouTube videos.

Your chosen mic should be used in conjunction with an audio recording tool on your PC. The audio can then be added to the video at the editing stage.

Different types of mic are available. You might use a USB desktop mic designed for podcasting or opt for a Lavalier-type mic with a tie clip. What you're looking for, ultimately, is a microphone with good sound quality.

Related: How to Choose the best Podcast Microphone

4. Lighting Your YouTube Video

If your video is well-lit, it will look great. But you don't necessarily need additional lighting. Large, naturally lit spaces will do just as well. Find out if you need lighting by recording a test video and judging the outcome.

If you determine that it looks a bit dark, then it is time to find a lighting solution.

This is not cheap, and will potentially be the most expensive item on your YouTube studio shopping list. Photography softboxes---complete with stands---will set you back anything from $40-$100 apiece.

One way to save money here is to fit daylight bulbs in your ceiling, but this is not as effective. A better alternative is a ring light, which can give an instant boost to the look of your video. Try one of these great ring light solutions.

5. Audio Software

In most situations, you're going to need audio software in your YouTube studio. You're running this project for as little money as possible, so the smart option would be Audacity, an open source audio editor (alternatives to Audacity are available) for Windows, macOS, and Linux.

We've looked at this application in depth over the years, and it is an excellent tool for so many different audio tasks.

6. Video Editing Software for YouTubers

So many different video editing tools are available at many different price points. Some are even free.

See our list of the best video editing apps for YouTube if you need some ideas.

Whichever option you choose, make sure it will export to a format that can be uploaded to YouTube. Better still, find a video editor that will upload directly!

7. Consider Some YouTube Studio Background Ideas

Many YouTubers get the background wrong. It doesn't need to be big, or ornate. You're not building a TV news studio.

But at the same time, the background---anything that can be seen behind you---needs to be tidy. If you live in a home with modern interior design, this can work well. If you don't, then you might want to cheat somewhat. Two options are available here:

  1. A screen or wall with a relevant poster.
  2. A green screen. You can then find a suitable image to drop in as a background during the edit.

Stunning backgrounds are a great option for shooting your videos outdoors, incidentally. The viewer doesn't even need to see the landscape in focus---they'll just be aware that it is there.

Setting Up Your Cheap YouTube Studio

With your equipment gathered, and perhaps a small amount of money spent, you'll be ready to put your studio together. This is a key stage.

Building a studio implies a certain amount of permanence, which means you'll want to get the recording equipment lined up perfectly. Here's a great YouTube video that shows much of what we've discussed here put into practice.

To do this, take the time to test your lighting and camera positions, making sure that everything is recorded. On film and TV, these things are done using tape on the floor. If this works for you, try it. Otherwise, find other ways to keep a record equipment placement and optimum settings for volume, brightness, etc.

Start YouTubing Before You Build a Studio

For the vast majority of YouTubers, a studio is not needed. After all, with nothing more than a smartphone and an internet connection, you can upload your videos to YouTube from anywhere, any time.

Perhaps you'll need a studio one day. But don't let the lack of a dedicated space for YouTubing stop you---start today! By the time you start thinking about needing a studio, you'll know what you're doing.

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How to Add and Edit Text in Adobe Photoshop | MakeUseOf

Typography is integral to any design, and if you're using Adobe Photoshop for your creations, it all starts with the text tool. Adding, modifying, and editing your text could not be simpler, and can open up a world of great design for the budding graphic designer.

So, in this article, we show you how to add and edit text in Photoshop. Which is easier than you think.

How to Add Text in Adobe Photoshop

  1. Click the Text tool button in the menu or use the keyboard shortcut T. Once you do that, you should see a cursor.
  2. Click on the canvas where you want your text to appear and start typing.add text in photoshop

How to Add Paragraphs in Adobe Photoshop

  1. Click the Text tool button in the menu or use the keyboard shortcut T. Once you do that, you should see a cursor.
  2. Click and drag on your canvas where you want your text to appear and draw a bounding box to limit the dimensions of your text.add text box in photoshop
  3. You can then start typing in your text box.add paragraph in photoshop
  4. You can alter the dimensions of the text box by clicking and dragging any of the anchor points. Just hover over them and your cursor should turn into arrows.

How to Edit Text in Adobe Photoshop

Once you've inserted the text, you're going to want to select a font (the best Photoshop typefaces you can use) that suits your design.

With the text tool still selected, you can choose all of the key features, including typeface, weight, and size, with the menu at the top of the screen. Use the dropdown menus to make your selections. You can also choose the text justification and color.

Another way to access these settings if you're running Adobe Photoshop CC 2018 is through the properties panel:

  1. Go to Window > Properties to open the panel.
  2. Select the layer of text you want to edit.
  3. With the layer selected, you should see all of the same text settings listed above in the properties panel.

For even more features and settings, you'll want to open the Character panel by going to Window > Character.

Here, you can access the same settings above, as well as a few others. You can change your leading (space between lines of text) and kerning (space between characters), switch your text to all caps or small caps with the click of a button, and more.

If you can't edit text in Photoshop, that's most likely because your layer is locked. To unlock the layer, select it in the Layers panel and click the lock icon. You can then edit the text within that layer.

How to Modify and Move Text in Adobe Photoshop

There are two ways you can access and change existing text. For a simple approach, do the following:

  1. Select the Text tool from the Tools panel or by using the keyboard shortcut T.
  2. Click anywhere directly on the text you want to edit on your canvas.

The second method requires you to have your layers panel open, but you don't need to have the Text tool selected:

  1. Open up your layers panel by going to Window > Layers.
  2. In the list of layers in your Layers panel, find the text you want to edit and double-click the large T button. This will highlight all of the text in that layer.
  3. You can then click your cursor in that text to select, delete, or add more text.modify text in photoshop

To move your text, do the following:

  1. Select the Move tool from the Tools panel or use the keyboard shortcut V.
  2. Click directly on the text on your canvas and drag to move without releasing the mouse.move text in photoshop

Mixing Text With Images Is Easier Than You Think

If you need to add some text to your photos in Photoshop, there are various ways to do that as shown above. Adding text is just the beginning of text styling, and you can add a number of effects and color shades to your text in just a few clicks.

If Photoshop happens to be your primary image editor, it's worth learning some of the most useful Photoshop tips and tricks. This should let you get the most out of Photoshop.

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18 Creative Photography Ideas for Beginners to Improve Their Skills

You've got new photography gear. You might have even taken some lessons in basic photography. But it can be difficult to get cool beginner photography ideas, whether you're at home, college, or work. It seems like such a simple thing to do, but figuring out where to point your camera or smartphone can be surprisingly difficult.

These photography ideas for beginners will have you snapping away in no time. From toys to animals to the night sky, cool photography ideas abound. All you need to do is start snapping!

1. A Rubik's Cube

Start with something simple. Many of us have a Rubik's cube lying around. If not, they're cheap!

Art lessons often begin with renderings of cubes or spheres with one or two sources of light casting shadows to immortalize. A Rubik's cube gives photographers a similar challenge, albeit also showing off your camera's ability to capture startling colors.

Its crisp lines will also introduce you to the concept of leading lines!

2. Still Life

Once you've mastered one object, it's time to throw more into a composition. We're once more taking inspiration from art courses.

A still life is simply a collection of items, typically against a plain backdrop. Fruit is a reliable example, but you could use books, old electronic hardware, or busts.

Experiment with different lighting. Adjust the proximity of a lamp and ask, how do the shadows change? Which objects are highlighted, and which are hidden? How would the piece look with the lamp as part of the still life?

The items you've chosen say a lot about you. Paul Cézanne's interest in skulls spoke of his fascination with mortality. Steve McCurry's broken sculptures speak of lost societies. Vincent van Gogh's obsession with sunflowers summed up a tortured attitude to life.

Skulls are too morbid, but what do your still life shots tell the viewers about you?

3. Self-Portrait

All art is a reflections: of creators, of consumers, of civilizations. That extends to self-portraits. So we'll take a moment here to tackle one of the most common (and controversial) photography subjects of modern life. We're talking, of course, about the selfie.

You may consider there to be very little skill in portraying yourself. Yet a vast wealth of talented folk have used self-portraits to uncover a hidden side of themselves. What expression are you making? What's in the background? What's the focus of your piece?

This will also help you get to grips with your camera's timer or selfie mode.

4. Your Own Children

You've taken a self-portrait. How do you apply those skills to other people?

Your own kids are perfect subjects. If you haven't got children, ask a relative if they'd mind you taking some photos of their kids. Children differ drastically---not just in age, but in temperament and energy too.

You'll naturally want to capture your kids having fun. But what about those more intimate moments when they're worried, reading, or listening to music? These are perfect times to practice some of your creative photography at home.

Get their consent first though.

5. Crowds

You've mastered taking a portrait of one or two people. Now try a crowd.

People are unruly. Even in a straight line, we stop and start at strange intervals. We suddenly change direction, begin conversations or break off from them, and deviate from directions.

You'll find an infinite supply of photography ideas in any crowd. Capture the movement of the crowd itself. Look for interesting shots of individuals. How do people behave? What makes some stand out? How does a large mass of humanity differ from a single person?

You're capturing people in their natural habitat: together.

6. Moving Vehicles

Vehicles offer a wide color palette, interesting lines, reflections, textures, and many other facets that photographers love.

But moving cars are another challenge entirely.

What's the main point of interest? Does an entirely blurred composition demonstrate what you're trying to achieve? Or does having one aspect in focus make the rest of the image "speed up"? Capturing moving objects will also make you experiment with shutter speeds.

Related: How to Find Photos to Study by Lens, Aperture, Shutter Speed, and Genre

7. Carnivals

Fun fairs are always better on gloomy evenings. They're more challenging for beginners and professional photographers too. You have to think about shutter speeds and composition, and add ISO into the mix.

ISO is the sensor's sensitivity to light. The higher the ISO, the better your camera will be at shooting in the dark. But higher ISO results in more "noise," grains that pockmark an image.

With lots going on all around you, you'll want to be ambitious. Restrain yourself. Remember: there's beauty in simplicity.

8. Animals

You've mastered people. Now try animals.

If you're looking for fun photography ideas, you can't go wrong with photographing pets. Candid shots are ideal. Trying to direct your animals to obtain a particular composition is equally challenging.

Get onto the same level as your pet. Aim to capture eyes. They're great focal points.

The best results come from extremes. Get up close or stand back: the former gives unusually intimate insight into the animal world; the latter gives context and shows playfulness.

9. Cobwebs

This is one of the most difficult photography assignments you'll attempt. Why? Because you're trying to capture a virtually intangible object.

We often can't see cobwebs with the naked eye, so how can your camera do it?

The obvious answer is moisture in the air. That means early mornings or late evenings when a mist is settling on the land. Don't spray water onto them: let nature take its course.

Factor in light. Where should its source be to illuminate your subject?

10. Sunrise and Sunset

If you're trying to shoot cobwebs in the mornings and nights, there's a perfect subject in the sky: the sun.

It's dazzling. What's more, it leaves gorgeous colors streaking across the roof of the world, especially as it rises and sets. In fact, if you're ever struggling for motivation, look up. That's your challenge.

Don't look at or point your camera directly at the sun when it's high in the sky.

Have patience. A "second sunset" occurs 20–30 minutes after the sun goes below the horizon, and will produce great results.

Don't be afraid to take lots of images. You may only be happy with one in 50, but that's one of the great things about digital and mobile photography.

11. Reflections

Playing with reflections in pictures offers an opportunity for presenting unique perspectives.

Combine reflection photography experiments with the sunrise or sunset and you can create numerous points of interest and end up with a bright, rich final product. Use mirrors for every situation on this list and you might carve out an interesting niche.

12. Fountains

When it comes to creative photography ideas, it's hard to beat water. It contains infinite changing lines. It reflects light in interesting ways. It's found in so many contexts.

Fountains are a good place to start. If you miss one freeze-frame, you'll get the chance again imminently. This allows you time to prepare yourself. Start with a shutter speed of 1/500 of a second and a lower ISO: you'll capture enough detail without detracting from the overall effect.

A lower aperture typically gives you a deeper depth of field---great in natural light, but less so under artificial illumination.

13. Fire

Let's turn our attentions to another unpredictable element: fire.

Take safety precautions. Make sure you're in a well-ventilated area and can put out the flames easily. Don't mess around. Better yet, simply take pictures of a candle or your home's fireplace.

Begin with a shutter speed of at least 1/250 for capturing individual flames or smoke. A slower speed will help if you want to show the full glow. What happens when fire is the sole light source?

14. Weather Extremes

All extremes are great to photograph: the light and the dark, anger and happiness, construction and destruction. Few things are as extreme as the weather.

You don't have to live in hurricane territory to show the ferocity of nature. There are loads of photography ideas in more mundane weather. A deluge of rainfall is as interesting as a monsoon. So too signs of drought. Photography is about documenting the world around us,; if there's one thing that unites us, it's the weather.

Most conditions don't last long and come without much warning, so be ready! Snow may stick around for days, but its fall can come and go intermittently in minutes.

15. Graffiti

This is divisive. For some, it's art. For others, it's vandalism. Either way, it's a perfect photography assignment for beginners.

No matter your view, you can get a point across. Should you crop close? Do you give wider context? What's in the background or foreground? This is about storytelling.

If you intend to profit from your photos, however, research copyright laws. Some graffiti artists attempt to trademark their work.

16. Cityscapes

Skylines are compelling, evocative, and nostalgic. If you've got time, stay in a position for much of the day. See how the light changes the composition and think about which you want to retain on film.

Get low to portray incredible scale or intimidation. Overlook an intersection to show how busy or empty something is. Search for leading lines or patterns to draw the eye.

17. Woodland

Woods are microcosms of life!

There's the grand scope of trunks, the rough bark, branches twisting up, and leafy veins. Daylight or twilight are excellent times to shoot, but using an artificial source of light at night might give you unusual pics.

18. Astronomical Events

At night, look up. Isn't it amazing? Capturing the infinite wonder of space? Now, there's a challenge. How do you photograph stars and natural satellites?

Start with a tripod. You'll need different ISO and aperture settings depending on what you're trying to photograph.

Start with our moon. Set your DSLR to its base ISO---likely either 100 or 200. If it's the former, you'll require a shutter speed of 1/125. For the latter, 1/250. Accompany both with an aperture of f/11.

There's too much to go into here, but as long as you're inspired, you're doing it right. But if you want to delve deeper, check out our article on tips for better night sky photographs.

Discover Your Own Photography Ideas

Mix things up by combining a few of these ideas together. Experimental is the key.

And if you've experimented with all these situations, you're not a beginner anymore. You're an experienced photographer.

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12 Things You Can Do With YouTube Studio | MakeUseOf

YouTube keeps changing its products to make publishing easier for content creators. However, whether you post videos often or periodically on YouTube, you must have used the YouTube Studio.

To help newcomers and even fill the knowledge gap of some frequent users, here are some of the things you can do with YouTube Studio beyond just posting videos.

The YouTube Studio is located at studio.youtube.com.

Or, if you're logged in to your YouTube account, you can locate the YouTube Studio by clicking on the picture menu at the top right-hand corner of the web app. The YouTube Studio option then appears on the dropdown menu.

However, if you don't have a YouTube channel already, once you click on the YouTube Studio option, the next menu that appears prompts you to create a YouTube channel.

Now that you're all set, here's an overview of the best YouTube Studio features to explore.

Since YouTube Studio is specific for individual channels, it allows you to manage multiple YouTube channels at a time. All you need to do is to switch channels. And if your YouTube channels are in different Google accounts, you can always swap your Google accounts as well.

You can switch your account either before or after launching the Studio. Once you log in to your YouTube account, just like you did while locating the YouTube Studio, click on the picture menu on your account and click Switch account to select your preferred YouTube channel. The process is pretty much the same while in the YouTube Studio.

That way, you get to monitor each account differently and more conveniently.

However, you can also create more than one YouTube channel with a single Google account. That new account is called a brand channel.

To create a brand channel, go to Settings, then go to Channel and navigate to the Advanced settings option. Then click on Manage YouTube account. This will take you to a new page where you get the option to Add or manage your channels.

Of course, monitoring the overall performance of your channel is very important. To access the analytics tool, click the Go To Channel Analytics option at the bottom-right corner of the Studio dashboard. As an alternative, you can also click the Analytics option at the left-hand corner of the web app.

Once on the analytics page, you get to monitor the performance of individual videos and see the overall changes occurring on your channel. These include in-depth information on changes in the number of subscribers, number of views, and watch time.

However, beyond that overview, you also have options that let you monitor your reach, engagement, and audience type. And just like any business, these options let you make future decisions about which video types to focus on.

These other options are equally useful if you like to know more about specific performance metrics.

You can also click on the View More or the Advanced option to get a better hold on more story-telling analytics. That option is useful if you want to compare performance based on year or how one video performs compared to another.

YouTube lets you access that option when you click on the Compare To option at the top right-hand corner of the Advanced Options page.

The most recommended way to upload videos on YouTube is via the YouTube Studio. Although you can still upload videos via the YouTube mobile app, this doesn't give you as much flexibility.

To upload a video, click on the Add Video logo at the top-right corner of the web app. That opens up a page that tells you to select a file. Click on Select Files to browse your local files for your video.

If you can't afford the cost of dedicated offline video editors, YouTube Studio now has an editor that lets you perform online video editing.

The best way to access the video editor is to list your video as a private video by ticking the Private option in the visibility step. That's a better way, as you don't want to perform raw edits on a video that's already public.

When you go back to the listed videos, you can then click on the recently uploaded video. And click on the Editor option at the left-hand corner of your screen to edit your video.

While not offering many advanced features like dedicated apps, the YouTube Studio video editor lets you do basic editing that at least gets your video ready for publishing.

You get to cut and merge fragments of your videos, add an end screen, video elements, and copyright-free audio from YouTube. And just recently, the blur effect has been added to the editor---this gives you more control over the objects that appear to viewers.

You can also draft a video for later editing. In fact, once a video is successfully uploaded, it becomes a draft already. So, once your video is uploaded, close the upload interface to add such a video to draft for later editing.

If you don't wish to publish a video immediately, you can schedule it for later. The video schedule option is available when you get to the Visibility step during the publishing process. The Schedule option then lets you specify your preferred uploading time for a video.

Granting access to multiple users is one of the things you might want to do---especially if you're opting for some collaborations. However, this involves granting permission to some users and assigning a role to them.

This option is available in Studio settings as well. Once in the Studio settings, navigate to Permissions and click the Manage Permissions option. Authenticate your account and click the Plus sign to invite a user.

Playlists are a great way to keep your channel more organized and easily navigable for viewers. You can create different playlists and give each of them a descriptive name. That lets users understand the intent of the content on a playlist immediately.

To create a playlist, click on the Playlist option at the left-hand corner of the studio. Then on the next interface that pops up, click on the New playlist option.

There are many ways to manage viewers' comments via YouTube Studio. However, you can decide to filter what your audience can post as comments, allow all comments, hold them for moderation, or even disable comments completely.

To get a hold on how your viewers' comments come through, just go to the Community option in your Studio settings. Then navigate between the Automated filters and Default options to set your preference.

If you think you need some translation texts to make your videos more engaging, you can decide to create and add a subtitle file to it.

The subtitle option is available in the first step of your video upload. To access it, click on More Options. Select your video language, and upload a subtitle file from your computer.

If your YouTube channel is new, you might want to have some videos on it for your potential audience before it goes public. What you want to do in that case is to hide your channel and keep uploading videos.

However, YouTube Studio gives you that option as well. It's available when you click on the Settings menu. Once the settings options come up, click on Channel, then Advanced Settings, and click on Remove YouTube Content. You then get the option to either delete or hide your channel from public view.

YouTube Studio has a news section that keeps you updated with the latest features of the YouTube Studio and YouTube in general. Checking this section frequently lets you know about new features and the ones you should anticipate.

YouTube Studio now has a lot of features that give you more flexibility while posting videos. And beyond the ones listed here, there are many other ones you'll come across too.

To really get a handle on everything YouTube Studio offers is, the best thing to do is take a look around yourself. Hopefully, this article has given you a good starting point.

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How to Rotate an Image in Photoshop | MakeUseOf

Have you captured a photo in the wrong orientation? Rotating your image in Photoshop will fix the problem.

There are also many other occasions when you’d need to rotate or tilt your images, and Photoshop has all the tools you need to do just that.

In this article, we show you a few ways to rotate your pictures using Photoshop. Feel free to choose the method that works for your particular needs.

Depending on whether you’re looking to rotate an entire image or a layer within your image, you can use one of the following methods in Photoshop.

If you want to fully rotate your picture by a certain degree, Photoshop has a tool that rotates your canvas. This, in turn, rotates everything that’s sitting on the canvas (your picture and any other elements that you may have added with Photoshop).

Here’s how to rotate the canvas in Photoshop:

  1. Open your image with Photoshop.
  2. Click the Image option at the top, select Image Rotation, and choose one of the options to rotate your image.
  3. rotate image photoshop

  4. If you want to manually specify the degree of rotation, click Edit > Image Rotation > Arbitrary. Then, specify the Angle, clockwise or counterclockwise options, and click OK.
  5. custom image rotation

Make sure to save your rotated image before closing Photoshop.

If the rotation doesn’t look good or if it isn't how you wanted it, press Ctrl + Z (for Windows) or Command + Z (Mac) to undo your rotation.

2. How to Rotate a Picture on a Picture With Layers

If you’re only looking to rotate certain parts in your image, and these parts have their individual layers, you can simply rotate the layer to rotate your chosen elements.

This uses a tool that’s different from the one used in the above method. Transform tool is one of the Photoshop tools that helps rotate individual objects in your photos.

You can use this tool as follows to rotate a picture on your main picture, or rotate other objects as long as they have their own individual layers:

  1. Launch your image with Photoshop and click the layer you want to rotate in the layers list.
  2. Click Edit at the top, select Transform, and choose one of the rotation options.
  3. transform image photoshop

  4. If you want to rotate your image by a custom angle, select Edit > Free Transform. You can now rotate the edges to rotate your image.
  5. Make sure to click the checkmark icon at the top to save your rotation.

3. How to Rotate an Image Using the Crop Tool

While the crop tool is supposed to help you crop your images in Photoshop, you can use this tool to rotate your images as well. This is the perfect tool to use for when you want to both crop and rotate your photos.

Here’s how to use this tool for rotation:

  1. While your image is still open in Photoshop, click the crop tool in the toolbar on the left. Alternatively, press C on your keyboard to activate the tool.
  2. Click on your image once and bring your cursor to one of the four corners of the image.
  3. When your cursor turns into a dual-arrow icon, you’re ready to rotate the image. Hold down the mouse button and start rotating the image.
  4. crop rotate image

  5. Click the checkmark icon at the top to save your changes.

4. How to Rotate a Picture Just to See How It Looks

Sometimes, you may want to rotate an image just to see how it looks rotated. Photoshop has a tool for this task as well, and this tool won’t make any permanent changes to your photo.

The tool is called Rotate View and it helps preview your rotated images. You can use it as follows:

  1. Click the Rotate View Tool in the toolbar on the left. If you don’t see it, click and hold on the hand icon and you’ll see the tool. Alternatively, press R on your keyboard and that will activate the tool for you.
  2. Click on your image and you can rotate it in whatever direction you want.
  3. rotate preview photoshop

  4. If you want to rotate your image by a certain degree, enter that degree in the box at the top and press Enter.
  5. To go back to the unrotated image, click on the Reset View button at the top. This will reset all of your rotation changes.

How to Automate Image Rotation in Photoshop

If you have several images to rotate, using the above methods to do that will take forever. A more efficient approach would be to use an automation feature that’s built into Photoshop.

Photoshop has a feature called Actions which enable you to record your photo editing tasks. You can record an action that rotates your images, and you can then use this action for all your images that need to be rotated. When the action runs, it will batch rotate all your images at once.

Here are the two stages to set this feature up in Photoshop.

1. How to Create an Action to Rotate Images in Photoshop:

  1. Create a folder named Rotated on your desktop. This folder will save your rotated images.
  2. Open one of the images you want to rotate with Photoshop.
  3. Click the Window option at the top and select Actions.
  4. Select the Create new action option, enter a name for your action, and click Record.
  5. record action photoshop

  6. Now, rotate your image how you’d like to rotate your other images. This usually includes clicking Image > Image Rotation and choosing a rotation option.
  7. When your image is rotated, click File > Save As.
  8. Select the Rotated folder on your desktop, leave the image name as is, choose a format from the Format dropdown menu, and finally hit Save at the bottom.
  9. Click the stop button in the Actions pane to stop your action recording.

2. How to Use an Action to Rotate Images in Photoshop

  1. Make a folder called To Rotate on your desktop; copy all of the images you want to rotate to this folder.
  2. Open Photoshop and click File > Automate > Batch.
  3. automate image rotation

  4. Select the action you created in the previous phase from the Action dropdown menu.
  5. Choose Folder from the Source dropdown menu.
  6. Click the Choose button and choose the To Rotate folder containing all your images on the desktop.
  7. Click OK and Photoshop will start rotating all of the images in that folder.batch rotate images

Your resulting images will be saved in the Rotated folder on your desktop.

No matter how and why you want to rotate images, Photoshop has all of the rotation options that you'll ever need. It even offers automatic rotation saving you from manually rotating each of your images in turn.

Photos oriented the wrong way isn’t the only issue people have with their images. Sometimes your images may be blurry and need fixing. Thankfully, Photoshop can help with that too.

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How to Format a Screenplay | MakeUseOf

Studio executives won't read your screenplay if it's in the wrong format. Most writers spend hundreds of dollars on software to ensure their screenplay is correctly formatted, but if you follow this guide you can get the same results for free.

By changing the font, line spacing, margins, and style rules, you can create a perfectly formatted screenplay in Microsoft Word, Apple Pages, or Google Docs.

Here's how to format a screenplay...

You're likely to find small variations across different screenplays when it comes to the exact line spacing, indentation, and font styles. We based our guidelines on the screenplay format for Avengers: Endgame.

If you want to use different settings, we suggest you find a screenplay from a company you want to work with and copy the format you find there. We'll highlight the areas you're likely to change as we work through the format below.

Follow the steps below to create a screenplay format in three of the most popular writing apps: Microsoft Word, Apple Pages, and Google Docs.

Create a new document in your word processor and use the settings below to change the paper size to US Letter with the following margins:

  • Top: 1 inch
  • Bottom: 1 inch
  • Left: 1.5 inches
  • Right: 0.5 inches

For A4 Paper, set the margins to:

  • Top: 1.35 inches
  • Bottom: 1.35 inches
  • Left: 1.5 inches
  • Right: 0.3 inches

Microsoft Word: Find these options by going to Layout > Size to choose the paper size. Then go to Margins > Custom Margins.

Apple Pages: Open the Document sidebar, then choose the paper size from the second dropdown menu. Change the Document Margins below that.

Google Docs: Go to File > Page Setup and edit the Paper Size and Margins.

Step 2. Choose the Font

Font selection for screenplay in Google Docs

Before typing anything, set the font to Courier at 12 point size. You could also use variants of Courier, such as Courier New or Courier Prime.

Then type these six words, each on its own line:

  • Slugline
  • Action
  • Character
  • Parenthetical
  • Dialog
  • Transition

Each word refers to a different font style within a screenplay. You'll format each of them differently below, then save them to keyboard shortcuts for easy access.

For reference, here is what each style refers to:

  • Slugline: Also known as a scene header, details the time and place of each scene.
  • Action: Describes the setting, characters, or actions in a scene.
  • Character: Appears before dialog lines to show which character is talking.
  • Parenthetical: Appears in brackets before dialog, explaining how to deliver that line.
  • Dialog: The words spoken by characters in your screenplay.
  • Transitions: Used to emphasize the change to a new scene, such as Cut To.

Bold and Underlined Sluglines

Sluglines, or scene headers, appear in a range of styles across different screenplays. You may see them bold, underlined, or just capitalized.

We made our slugline bold, to match the Avengers: Endgame script. To do so, double-click the word "Slugline" and press Ctrl + B (or Cmd + B on a Mac).

You can choose a different style if you wish. But whichever slugline style you choose, keep it consistent across every page of your screenplay.

Capitalization

Certain lines in a screenplay only ever appear in all capital letters. Double-click to select the following lines, one at a time, then use the settings below to make them capitalized:

  • Slugline
  • Character
  • Transition

Microsoft Word: Right-click the selected line and open the Font menu. Enable the box for All Caps.

Apple Pages: Open the Format sidebar, go to the Style tab, and open the Advanced Options menu beneath the font size. Change the Capitalization to All Caps.

Google Docs: You can't create a capitalized style in Google Docs, so you need to remember to capitalize these lines yourself as you write.

Step 3. Adjust the White Space

Screenplay template with indentation and line spacing in Apple Pages

The recognizable look of a screenplay mostly comes from its use of white space. This is determined by the line spacing, indentation, and alignment settings for each of the different font styles.

Line Spacing

The line spacing determines how much white space appears before or after a line. Press Ctrl + A (or Cmd + A on a Mac) to select everything, then make the line spacing Exactly 12 points (or Exactly 1 in Google Docs).

Microsoft Word: Go to the Home tab and open the Line Spacing Options from the Line Spacing dropdown menu.

Apple Pages: Find the Spacing section in the Style tab of the Format sidebar. Use the dropdown menu to select Exactly.

Google Docs: Go to Format > Line spacing > Custom spacing.

Now double-click to select a single line and set these Before and After line spacings:

StyleBefore (Pts)After (Pts)
Slugline2412
Action1212
Character120
Parenthetical00
Dialog00
Transition012

Indentation

The indentation determines the gap to the left or right of each line in your screenplay. These settings are the most likely to vary from script to script, so feel free to make adjustments based on the format of your target screenplay.

Double-click to select a line, then set these indentations with the settings below:

StyleLeft (Inch)Right (Inch)
Slugline00
Action00.31
Character2.060.5
Parenthetical1.412.13
Dialog1.031.88
Transition00.62

Microsoft Word: Open the Layout tab in the toolbar.

Apple Pages: Open the Format sidebar and go to the Layout tab. Set the First indent to the same as the Left one.

Google Docs: Go to Format > Align and Indent > Indentation options.

Alignment

Almost all text in a screenplay is aligned to the left, which is the default for most word processors. The only exception to this is transition lines, which are aligned to the right.

Double-click to select the Transition line, then align it to the right.

Page Breaks

It's important to keep certain lines together in a screenplay, even if that means leaving white space at the bottom of a page. This way, sluglines or character names always appear with the action or dialog lines that follow them.

Use the settings below to enable the Keep with next option for:

  • Slugline
  • Character
  • Parenthetical

Then use the same settings to turn on Keep lines together (or Keep lines on same page in Google Docs) for:

  • Parenthetical
  • Dialog

Microsoft Word: Go to the Line and Page Breaks tab to choose your settings.

Apple Pages: Open the Format sidebar, then go the More tab.

Google Docs: Go to Format > Line Spacing and select the relevant options at the bottom.

Step 4. Create the Styles

Screenplay format styles in Apple Pages sidebar

You need to save each line as a style in your word processor so you can automatically format text as you write your screenplay. Double-click to select a single line, then follow the steps below to turn it into a style.

Repeat these steps for each line.

Microsoft Word: Go to the Home tab and open the Styles Pane. Click New Style and name it after the selected line.

Apple Pages: Open the styles dropdown menu at the top of the Format sidebar. Click the Add (+) button where it says Paragraph Styles to create a new style, then name it after the selected line.

Google Docs: You can't create new styles in Google Docs. Instead, update the existing styles to match different lines. To do this, select a line and go to Format > Paragraph styles > [Heading 1–6] > Update [Heading 1–6] to match. You need to match the Heading styles so you can use them with shortcuts.

Choose the Following Style

Certain styles are almost always grouped together in a screenplay, such as character and dialog. Use the settings below to make your word processor automatically select an appropriate style whenever you create a new line.

Choose these following styles for each line in your screenplay:

  • Slugline: Followed by Action
  • Action: Followed by Action (or Same)
  • Character: Followed by Dialog
  • Parenthetical: Followed by Dialog
  • Dialog: Followed by Character
  • Transition: Followed by Slugline

Microsoft Word: Open the Styles Pane and hover over the first style, then open the dropdown menu and select Modify Style. In the window that appears, choose an appropriate Style for following paragraph.

Apple Pages: Select the first line, open the Format sidebar, and go to the More tab. Use the Following Paragraph Style dropdown to choose the following style.

Google Docs: You can't choose a following style in Google Docs.

Keyboard shortcuts make it easier to select styles and format text as you write your screenplay. However, the available shortcuts depend on your word processor.

Microsoft Word: Open the Styles Pane, hover over one of your new styles, open the dropdown menu, and choose to Modify Style. From the menu in the bottom-left corner, select Shortcut Key, then press any keyboard shortcut you want to use and click Assign.

Apple Pages: Open the Format sidebar, then click the arrow at the top to reveal the styles dropdown menu. Hover over one of your new styles and click the Arrow that appears. Choose a Shortcut from the available options. You need to hold Fn to use the function keys as shortcuts on a Mac.

Google Docs: Shortcuts already exist for the Heading styles. Hold Ctrl + Option (or Cmd + Option on a Mac) with the numbers 1–6 to select Heading styles.

At this point, the body of your screenplay should be perfectly formatted. Spend some time with these motivational and planning writing apps to get your head down and write your story.

But before you send it out to anyone, you still need to add a couple of finishing touches.

Start with a blank page and use the action style to create five blank lines. Now type your screenplay title in all capitals and make it bold.

Create another two blank lines, type "Written by", then type another blank line and type your name.

Select everything on the page and align it to the center.

It's also a good idea to add some contact details to the bottom of this page for people to find you if they like the screenplay.

You need page numbers in case someone prints your screenplay out to read it. Use the settings below to add them and make sure your page numbers appear in 12 point Courier.

Microsoft Word: Open the Insert tab and click the Page Number button. Change the Position to Top of page and turn off the Show number on first page option. After clicking OK, double-click your page number to change the font and size.

Apple Pages: Click in the top-right corner of the page to edit the header, then choose to Insert Page Number > 1. Double-click your page number to change the font and size. Then open the Document sidebar, go to the Section tab, and enable the Hide on first page of section option.

Google Docs: Go to Insert > Page Numbers and choose the second option to show numbers in the top-right corner after the first page.

Now that you've finished creating your free screenplay format, you should save it as a template in Microsoft Word or Apple Pages. To do so, go to File > Save as Template.

Unfortunately, you can't save your own templates in Google Docs. Instead, create a copy of this document for each screenplay you want to start working.

When you're setting out to write a screenplay, you should aim to learn everything you can about filmmaking in general. Fortunately, the internet has endless free resources you can use to learn from.

Why not check out some movie analysis channels on YouTube for the best crash course in film studies. Then use the lessons you learn to improve your next screenplay.