Microsoft OneDrive is integrated into every copy of Windows 10 by default. Activate it, and the OneDrive folder on your PC will automatically synchronize with a cloud version stored in your Microsoft account. You navigate and interact with this folder like you would any other folder in Windows.
But there's also a local client, which can help you to explore and manage your OneDrive. This app works differently to the OneDrive folder in Windows and has its own unique keyboard shortcuts. Remember them, and they'll save you time and make it even easier to work with your OneDrive files.
FREE DOWNLOAD: This cheat sheet is available as a downloadable PDF from our distribution partner, TradePub. You will have to complete a short form to access it for the first time only. Download the Microsoft OneDrive Keyboard Shortcuts Cheat Sheet.
Microsoft OneDrive Shortcuts
Select adjacent items
Ctrl + A
Select all items
Ctrl + D
Deselect all selected items
Ctrl + C
Copy select file or files
Ctrl + V
Paste copied file or files
Shift + arrow keys
Select multiple files
Alt + Esc
Cycle through opened files
Ctrl + Shift + N
Close the current pop-up or opened item
Toggle selection for current item
Open or download selected item
Alt + up arrow key
Navigate to parent folder
Rename selected item
Delete selected item
Share selected item or items
Shift + F10
Open details menu
Toggle details pane
Alt + P
Display file details
Alt + M
Enter selection mode
? (Shift and /)
Show keyboard shortcuts
/ or Ctrl + E
Open action details panel
Left and right arrow keys in preview of document
Change pages of document
Ctrl + J
Show downloads panel
Alt + L
Lock Personal Vault
Alt + F4
Close the item
Activate the menu bar
Ctrl + B
Skip back 10 seconds in the video player
Ctrl + F
Skip forward 30 seconds in the video player
OneDrive and the Power of Cloud Backups
Knowing all the keyboard shortcuts for the OneDrive app for Windows can make navigating through your files and folders much faster and easier. It doesn't have that many shortcuts, compared to other apps, but the few it does have are worth remembering.
However, you might not want to use OneDrive at all. In that case, you can disable OneDrive in Windows 10 entirely. You might also want to check out competing cloud backup solutions, which do a similar job.
Even if your tablet is in a case, there’s always a risk it could end up with a broken screen one day. Whether you drop it, sit on it, or expose it to extreme heat, it’s not that hard to crack the glass digitizer or the LCD below it.
If that happens to you, is there any chance you can actually replace your tablet screen with a new one? The answer is yes, but how easily depends not only on your own skills but what model of tablet you have.
Here are some of the key things you need to know if you’re thinking about replacing a broken tablet screen.
Research Your Tablet
Before you do anything, you should Google your tablet to see if anyone else has successfully fit one with a new display. Make sure you search for the exact model. You should hopefully find teardown guides and YouTube videos that demonstrate how to get the tablet apart and fix it.
For this guide, we’re demonstrating with an Amazon Fire HD 10 (2017).
Doing your research beforehand will enable you to see how difficult it is to replace the screen---if it’s possible at all. You might decide it’s not worth the expense or that it’s best left to a professional.
Once you’re happy it’s doable, it’s time to look for a replacement screen.
Buying a Replacement Tablet Screen
To find a new screen, just Google the name or model number of your tablet, followed by “replacement screen”. There are numerous specialist sellers who stock replacement parts for tablets. Make sure to read customer reviews to help you find a reliable seller.
Another good source of spare parts for tablets is eBay. Again, be sure to search for the exact model of tablet you want to fix, because even different iterations of the same device can have different screens. For example, the 2017 Amazon Fire HD 10 will have a different screen to the 2019 edition.
As always, look at eBay sellers’ feedback to help you decide on who to buy from. Watch out for items coming from China too, as they will usually take a long time to arrive and may incur import fees.
You may see digitizers being sold separately from LCDs. While it's possible to replace these separately, they're normally glued together, making it extremely difficult to separate them. In most instances, you should buy a combined digitizer and LCD unit.
Tools for Replacing a Tablet Display
As well as a replacement display, you’ll need to buy the right tools to fix your tablet---assuming you don’t already have them.
Typically, that will include:
Small Phillips head screwdriver
Small Torx head screwdriver
Plastic plectrum (or old credit/membership/store card)
Optional suction cup to help position the display
You’ll often get some of these tools included with your replacement display. However, the quality varies, and there’s no guarantee they’ll fit your tablet. If you find that’s the case, then you should look to buy better tools separately. Toolkits for opening phones and tablets can be found online for a few dollars. (https://www.amazon.com/Ewparts-Uniersal-Screwdriver-Removal-Motorola/dp/B07NJPFG95/)
For most tablets, you’re also going to need a heat gun to get the screen and the back casing off. It’s common for them to be glued in place, and warming that glue makes it possible to unstick it.
You’ll also need to replace the glue. There are specialist glues you can use for this purpose, but other adhesives may work as well. Just don’t use anything brittle like superglue or weak like wood glue. In a pinch, double-sided tape will work, but only short-term.
Finally, make sure you wear safety goggles. When you’re removing the display from your tablet, the glass may shatter, sending debris flying.
Opening a Broken a Tablet
Although it varies per model, you normally have to remove the back from your tablet before you can even begin to take off the broken display.
If you’re lucky, this is a simple case of pulling off the back or using your spudgers to pry it away. Unfortunately, most tablets these days are glued together---front and back. There are some signs that manufacturers are open to making their devices more repairable, but there's still a lot of work to be done in this area.
If your tablet's back case is glued on, you’ll need to carefully warm the casing around the edges using your heat gun. Then you need to push your spudgers between the back case and the body of the tablet to break the glue and get them apart.
When you’ve gained access to the insides of your tablet, you will probably have to remove most, if not all, of the components before you can safely take the screen off. That usually means the battery, the motherboard, cameras, various other cables, the power switch, and the display itself.
When disconnecting any cables, use your plastic tools to do it gently. Never exert unnecessary force, because you could easily break something.
Replacing a Tablet Screen
If, like most tablets these days, yours has a glued-on screen, you’re going to need your heat gun again. One section at a time, carefully warm up the edge of the screen with your heat gun, but don’t linger in one place too long---you don’t want to melt any plastic parts below the glass.
Next, try to push a plectrum or credit card between the glass and the body of the tablet. It should go in with a little force, but if it doesn’t try warming up the screen some more. Once you get the plectrum in, try to slide it around under the screen, further breaking the glue.
Alternate between heating the screen and prying it away. Ideally, you won’t break the glass in the process, but it’s not a problem if you do. After all, the screen is already broken.
Putting Your Tablet Back Together
After removing the old display, put your new screen in place, and replace the motherboard and battery. Reconnect all the cables and cameras. Attach the cable for the new display then replace the screws.
Before going any further, this is a good opportunity to test if the new display is working. Turn on the tablet, check you get a picture, and that the touch functionality is operating as normal.
Assuming all is okay, return the back casing to how it was originally. Then glue the screen on, and use clothes pegs to hold it in place while it dries.
Is It Worth Trying to Replace a Broken Tablet Screen?
While it’s usually possible to replace a broken tablet screen, it’s not always easy. Whether it’s worth it depends largely on how much a replacement display will cost you, compared to the price of just buying a new tablet.
While you might enjoy the challenge, fixing your own electronic devices is always going to be a risk. It’s usually much cheaper than buying a new tablet or paying a repair shop, but if you get it wrong, then it’s money down the drain.
The most important thing is to do your research before you start. If it’s too expensive or beyond your abilities to fix your tablet yourself, it’s best to find out sooner rather than later.
If you’re a gamer looking for bargain-priced games, it won’t be too long until you stumble across CDKeys. It sells codes to unlock games from marketplaces like Steam, Origin, and the PlayStation Network, but often at significantly discounted prices.
Sometimes, games on CDKeys are so cheap that they seem too good to be true. So, is it all just one big scam, or is CDKeys legit?
We looked into how exactly CDKeys operates, and what its customer say about the service. In addition, we ordered a game ourselves just to see how it works.
Why Is CDKeys So Cheap?
In the FAQ on the CDKeys website, we found the following statement about why the firm’s products are so cheap:
We buy from all corners of the globe to ensure the cheapest possible prices and as we only sell products in digital form we're able to make significant savings on postage and related expenses—we then pass these reductions on to you, which ensures our pricing is the most competitive around!
Firstly, globes don’t have corners, do they? Secondly, this is pretty vague. It doesn’t explicitly say where CDKeys gets its codes from, only that it buys them cheaply and then resells them on its site.
We can make some educated guesses, though. One likely explanation is that CDKeys shops around, legitimately buys games from regions where they’re the cheapest, and then resells them to customers.
That, of course, relies on the codes not being region-locked. Indeed, some games on CDKeys are for specific parts of the world, so how are they offered cheaper than other stores?
We're speculating here, but it's possible that CDKeys also buys games in bulk when they’re on sale and then adds a markup later when the prices return to normal. This is certainly something that other videogame key sellers do.
The savings it makes by no having physical stores play a part, but CDKeys frequently undercuts digital stores as well. But whereas services like Steam and Origin host the download files themselves, that's not an expense that applies to CDKeys.
What do we know about the people behind CDKeys? Its terms and conditions page offers some clues. It’s run by Sensible Digital B.V., a company based in the Netherlands.
Its parent company, Omnyex Ecommerce DMCC is, however, headquartered in Dubai. Notably, Omnyex had a stand at the E3 expo in 2016, which doesn’t seem like the kind of thing a shady backstreet operation would do.
CDKeys currently has over 68,000 mostly positive reviews, and at the time of writing, 87 percent of users rated CDKeys as "Excellent." The service is praised time and time again for its low prices and fast delivery of codes.
At the other end of the scale, 7 percent of CDKeys’ Trustpilot ratings are "Bad," the worst possible rating on the site. Scrolling through those reviews, there are a lot of complaints about codes not working or not being delivered. To date, CDKeys has only replied to 8 percent of those negative reviews.
Although not insignificant, this relatively low percentage of bad reviews could easily be due to isolated technical problems and customer service issues, rather than having anything to do with the legitimacy of the site.
CDKeys has very few scores between Excellent and Bad, but this high contrast is typical of user reviews. Whether they like or dislike something, people tend to leave extreme scores—either the maximum or the lowest possible.
And customers who have a problem which is later remedied aren’t obliged to remove their negative reviews. It’s also true that unhappy customers are more likely to leave a review than happy ones.
It’s no coincidence that many of CDKeys’ Trustpilot positive scores are from customers who were invited to leave a review. CDKeys pays to access extra Trustpilot features, some of which are integrated with its website. Prompting people to give feedback increases the likelihood that satisfied customers will do so.
On other user review sites, like Reviews.io, Sitejabber, and ResellerRatings, reviews for CDKeys are almost entirely negative, and its overall ratings are no higher than two stars. This sounds bad, but this only confirms the notion that happy customers don’t usually leave reviews unless invited. Furthermore, these other review sites have at most a couple of hundred reviews.
As with any user reviews, you shouldn't blindly accept CDKeys’ Trustpilot score, but it's a strong indication that the vast majority of its customers come away satisfied.
What Do Game Companies Say About CDKeys?
A lot has been said about key sellers and how game companies view them, but most of that criticism is aimed at one vendor in particular: G2A. This notorious site is essentially a marketplace where anyone can sell game keys.
G2A has been accused of making it too easy for criminals to sell keys bought with stolen credit cards. That hits publishers in the pocket when they have to refund the real cardholders.
CDKeys, however, hasn’t attracted the ire of developers like G2A has. That’s likely because CDKeys has a different model. It sells keys directly, rather than being a marketplace for other sellers. It’s still firmly in the gray market, but its practices don’t appear to be illegal and don't offer an avenue for criminals.
You could perhaps argue that what CDKeys does is unethical. Game companies would, of course, prefer to sell their products for the highest prices possible, so they’re probably not huge fans of CDKeys. But unlike sites that are open to potential fraud, CDKeys does at least guarantee developers and publishers some income.
Our Experience Buying a Game From CDKeys
To demonstrate, we’re going to run through all the steps of buying a game from CDKeys, right up to payment and delivery.
To start, browse or search the CDKeys store to find the game you want. We chose to buy a code for For the King on PC, redeemable via Steam. According to CDKeys, the price of $2.69 is 87% cheaper than Steam. We checked, and For the King was, indeed, $19.99 on Steam.
Once you’ve found the game you want, click Buy Now to pay with a card, or click the PayPal button. We opted to use PayPal, but if you do pay with a card, make sure your purchase is protected by your card company.
Before confirming your order, you’ll get another chance to review your order to make sure it’s all okay. While you’re there, double-check that you have the right version of the game for your region. If you buy a key for a different part of the world, it may not work. Click Complete order to finalize your purchase.
On the next screen, select Get your key.
This will take you to the part of your online account where you can see the game you’ve just bought, as well as any others you’ve purchased. Click Get code to expand the box and view your download code.
Copy and paste, or type this code wherever it needs to go. In our case, we went into Steam and selected Games > Activate a Product from the menu. We entered the code, and it all went through with no problems.
Less than a minute after the order was initially made, we also had confirmation from CDKeys and a PayPal receipt in our email inbox.
The Verdict: Is CDKeys Safe to Use?
Based on our test and the majority of the reviews, CDKeys seems to be a mostly reliable and legal way of buying cheap games. From personal experience of buying from CDKeys in the past, however, we can confirm the experience isn’t always this smooth.
We’ve received all the games we’ve ever ordered, but a couple of times, it has taken several hours for keys to arrive. Notably, these were new releases, so it’s possible that CDKeys oversold its stock of keys on those occasions or there was some other technical issue.
As with any gray market seller, there is some risk associated with buying from CDKeys. Its customer service may not meet the standards of major outlets, and it might take longer to receive a refund if you have a problem redeeming your keys.
And if you have problems with a game you buy, rather than the key, you might not get any help from CDKeys either. Its terms and conditions explicitly state it is an intermediary between you and game companies.
It’s also possible that game companies could decide to clamp down on cross-region selling, invalidating your keys at the same time. CDKeys has already been around for several years, and it would be a PR nightmare, so it doesn't seem likely. But it's worth bearing in mind, especially as it's happened in the past with keys from G2A.
Use Caution When Shopping on CDKeys
Ultimately, it’s up to you whether or not you want to try CDkeys. A lot is unknown about how it works, so while we can report on our own experience, we can't endorse the company or its practices. And if you would rather not buy from gray market sellers, there are plenty of other reliable sites that offer discounted games.
Although video compression technology is improving all the time, watching a lot of Netflix can still eat up data. That can be a major problem if your internet connection has a data cap, as it can lead to additional charges or bandwidth throttling. How much data does Netflix use, though? And what can you do to adjust its bandwidth use?
By having some idea of Netflix data usage, you can more easily avoid going over your limits. Thankfully, it’s relatively easy to find and change the Netflix data usage options.
How Much Bandwidth Does Netflix Use?
Netflix’s bandwidth usage depends on what quality setting you choose. There are four Netflix data usage presets:
Low: This uses 0.3GB per hour per device.
Medium: The standard definition setting, which uses 0.7GB per hour.
High: The best video quality, covering both HD (720p and 1080p) and Ultra HD (4K). HD uses up to 3GB per hour, while Ultra HD uses 7GB per hour.
Auto: Netflix will automatically raise or lower the quality of the stream based on the current speed of your internet.
Using these figures, an average 90-minute HD film would use approximately 4.5GB of data. Binge-watch a 10-episode TV show in Ultra HD, with one-hour episodes, and that’s a hefty 70GB of data.
Running the Netflix app in Windows, we checked in the Task Manager while playing a 4K episode of the nature documentary series Our Planet.
After a short bit of buffering, Netflix’s data usage spiked to around 84MB/s, as the app cached the video. It then alternated between zero and around 2MB per second. 7GB per hour works out at 1.94MB per second, suggesting that Netflix’s stated bandwidth is correct.
How Much Data Does Netflix Use on Mobile Devices?
It's easy to see how data usage can quickly pile up while watching Netflix. That could be an even greater problem if you’re using a cell phone connection with an even smaller monthly data allowance.
Fortunately, Netflix offers some data usage settings specifically for mobile devices:
Automatic: This balances data usage with good quality video, using around a gigabyte of data every four hours.
Wi-Fi Only: Netflix will only stream video when connected to Wi-Fi.
Save Data: This boosts viewing time to about six hours per gigabyte.
Maximum Data: The highest quality setting, ideal for those with unlimited data plans. It can use up to a gigabyte of data every 20 minutes.
Importantly, if you set a data usage limit on Netflix, the app won’t go over that.
How to Change Your Netflix Data Usage Settings
To change your main Netflix data options, you need to log into your account from a web browser. You can’t do it from a Netflix app.
Go to www.netflix.com/YourAccount and scroll down to Profile & Parental Controls. Each profile can have its own data usage settings, so do the following steps for each profile you want to change.
Click the arrow to expand your profile settings. Find Playback settings and click Change.
Under Data usage per screen, choose whichever option you want. Click Save. Your Netflix videos will now stream using your chosen data usage options.
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To change your mobile data options, open your Netflix app and tap either More or Profile. Tap App Settings.
Under Video Playback, select Cellular Data Usage (depending on your region, this might say something else, like "Mobile Data Usage").
Now choose one of the four options described above.
You can also adjust settings for downloads here as well. You can change download video quality, limit downloads to Wi-Fi only, and enable Smart Downloads.
Smart Downloads automatically replaces watched episodes with new ones when connected to Wi-Fi, which is perfect if you don't have a lot of space on your phone.
Tracking All of Your Data Use
It’s not just Netflix that eats up data. Watching videos on Amazon Prime, YouTube, Hulu, and every other service you can think of presents the same issues.
If you are limited by your internet provider, make sure you keep track of not just Netflix but all your data usage to ensure you don’t incur any penalties.
When you create a long document in InDesign, like a book or catalog, it’s likely that you’ll want to include a contents page. While you can do this manually, it’s better to let InDesign generate your table of contents for you.
Not only does this mean your contents page will update automatically, but it also means that you can apply custom formatting, and then use that for contents pages in other documents.
Here’s how to create a table of contents in InDesign.
Preparing Your Document for a Table of Contents
We’re going to be building a table of contents for Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, a text file downloaded from Project Gutenberg. For the sake of simplicity, we’ve copied and pasted the entirety of the text into one document.
However, it’s possible to have different chapters in separate InDesign documents, and then collate them into one book file. InDesign can create tables of contents from not just one document, but all documents in a book file.
To begin, create a Master Page spread. Ours has page numbers on every page, the book title on left-hand pages, and a section marker on the right-hand pages. With all the text added and without any formatting applied, there are 102 pages, including the cover.
InDesign builds tables of contents using paragraph styles that you define. That means everything you want to be pulled through to your contents page must have a paragraph style applied to it.
Our document has chapter numbers and chapter titles, so we’ve applied a style to each. Chapter numbers use our Chapter paragraph style, while our Chapter Title style applies to the names of the chapters in the book. We went through the document and applied these styles where needed.
Our table of contents page will go on page three of our document. Page one is the cover, and page two is blank.
Getting Started with Tables of Contents in InDesign
With all our paragraph styles applied throughout our document, we can get on with building our contents page.
From the top menu, select Layout > Table of Contents. This opens the Table of Contents panel.
You can give your table of contents a title or use the default "Contents" title. Alternatively, you can also leave it blank if you don’t want to include a title as part of your table of contents.
From here, define a style for the title, which will change its formatting. We’ve used our Chapter Title style, but you can create a whole new paragraph style for this if you want.
Under the Styles in Table of Contents section, there are two columns: Include Paragraph Styles and Other Styles. From the Other Styles column, add the Chapter and Chapter Title styles we defined earlier. You can either click on them and then use the Add button, or you can click and drag them over.
This puts the two styles in a hierarchy, which InDesign will use to generate your table of contents. You can also drag and drop to rearrange this hierarchy, or you can use the Level buttons further down in the panel.
When you’re done, click OK. Drop the contents table where you want it to go.
Formatting Your InDesign Table of Contents
As you can see, the table still doesn't look quite right. InDesign has pulled in the formatting from the paragraph styles, not just the content that uses them. Let’s fix that.
Go back into Layout > Table of Contents. Click on Chapter, and under Style: Chapter, you'll see the Entry Style dropdown menu is set to Same Style.
Change this to a different paragraph style—either one that you've already defined or a new one. We’ve chosen [Basic Paragraph], a default paragraph style that every InDesign document includes. Do the same with Chapter Title and click OK.
Our table of contents' text is now using the [Basic Paragraph] style formatting.
But we also have duplicate page numbers. There are numbers after each chapter number and each chapter name. With a few clicks, we can change this.
Go back into the Table of Contents panel and click More Options. From the expanded panel, under Include Paragraph Styles, click on the Chapter paragraph style.
Under Style: Chapter, use the dropdown next to Page Number and change it to No Page Number. Click OK. The page numbers will no longer appear next to the chapter numbers.
Next, let’s add some line breaks to make our table of contents more readable. Although you can do this manually, it’s better to create a paragraph style for this purpose.
In the Table of Contents panel, click on the Chapter style under Include Paragraph Styles. Then, under Style: Chapter, change the Entry Style to New Paragraph Style.
This opens the New Paragraph Style panel. In the General section, we’ll name the new style "Chapter with space above," since that’s what it’s going to do. We'll also choose [Basic paragraph] from the Based On dropdown menu.
Still in the New Paragraph Style panel, select Basic Character Formats from the left-hand side. Set the Leading to 25 and click OK.
There is now a space above all the chapter numbers.
You can add whatever formatting you want to your style. So, for example, you might want to put your page numbers in bold or a different font. Experiment to get different results.
Adding Spaces and Tab Leaders to Contents Pages
At the moment, our page numbers are separated from our chapter titles with a tab space, added automatically by the Table of Contents panel. You may have already noticed you can change this. Let’s do that now.
Click on the Chapter Title style under Include Paragraph Styles. Under Style: Chapter Title, click on the arrow next to Between Entry and Number.
Here, you can define a variety of spaces and formatting options. You can also enter combinations. For example, you could add a space, three tabs, then an em dash. Or you can simply type in whatever characters or spaces you want to be inserted.
To demonstrate, type in a series of period points. This will add exactly the amount of periods you define.
This isn’t quite what we’re after, though. What we want is for InDesign to align all the page numbers on the right, and to automatically fill in as many dots as needed. This isn’t an option in the Table of Contents panel, which means it requires a new paragraph style.
To get the effect we want, we need to create a paragraph style for our Chapter Title entries in our table of contents. Using the same process as before, create a new paragraph style called "Chapter title with dots," again basing it on the [Basic Paragraph] style.
This time, though, go to the Tabs section of the New Paragraph Style panel. Click the right-hand tab arrow, which is the third from the left. Where it says Leader, add a period point. Use the ruler to place the tab marker and click OK.
You’ll be left with right-aligned page numbers, and the space preceding them is automatically filled with dots. You can, of course, use any symbol you like instead of periods.
Reusing Your Table of Contents Styles
Using the various techniques here, you can create a contents page that looks exactly how you want. We’ve only touched on the essentials, but you can also do things like sorting entries alphabetically and including content on hidden layers.
Whatever you do when you build a table of contents, you may want to import your work into other contents pages.
If you want to use the same styling in other tables of contents in other documents, click Save Style in the Table of Contents panel. Your work here will then be accessible from Layout > Table of Contents Styles.
Master the Table of Contents in InDesign
If you work on a lot of documents that use the same structure and styling, getting a grasp on creating a table of contents will save you a significant amount of time and effort. And it will enable your reader to more easily find what they're looking for.
InDesign’s paragraph styles are all about efficiency. They enable you to store text formatting attributes and reuse them with just a few clicks. Font weight, color, size, spacing, and just about anything you can think of can be saved as a paragraph style.
Alongside paragraph styles, InDesign also includes character styles. These do a similar job but are generally used in slightly different circumstances. Let's look at what they both do and how to use them.
Getting Started With InDesign Paragraph Styles
Begin by opening the Paragraph Styles window. If it’s not already open, press F11 or select Window > Styles > Paragraph Styles. You may find this also opens the Character Styles window. That's fine—you're going to need it as well.
Place the window wherever you want in InDesign. You can dock it on the left or right, but we’re going to keep it floating for now.
By default, you will already have the [Basic Paragraph] style. This is the style that gets applied to new text until you define something else.
You can change this, but you can’t delete or rename it. If you double-click on it, you’ll open the Paragraph Styles Options panel.
Here, you can see just how many formatting attributes can be stored in a paragraph style. You can define styles this way, but it’s quicker to use your existing text as a base for styles.
Creating an InDesign Paragraph Style
Let’s start with a basic two-page document, consisting of two headlines, two standfirsts, five subheads, and paragraphs of placeholder text. At this point, everything is in the default [Basic Paragraph] style.
Style your first headline however you want. In our case, we’ve chosen Arial Black at 30pt. The font color is the default black.
You should give this a more memorable name. Left-click on the name of the paragraph style, wait about half a second, and left-click again.
This should enable you to edit the name of the paragraph style. You can also rename it in the Paragraph Style Options window, which you open by double-clicking the paragraph style name.
We’ve named our new paragraph style Headlines because that’s where we’re going to be using it.
Now, navigate to Main Headline Number 2 on the second page. Put your type cursor anywhere inside the headline, and select the Headlines paragraph style you just defined.
This headline now has all the same formatting as the first one.
Apply the same principle to your standfirsts, but try adding a different color this time. We’ve opted for red. InDesign will store this information in the paragraph style as well.
Now move on to the subheads. This time, we’re going to change not only the font and color, but also the space between the letters (tracking). We’re also going to increase the line spacing (leading), so there’s always a gap above our subheads.
The screenshot below shows that our font is Arial Bold at 12pt with 23pt Leading, and the Tracking set to 20. It's also set to Blue.
You can now apply this style across the rest of your document. It’s easy to see how this can save you time when you want to format similar parts of your document.
Using InDesign Paragraph Styles on Whole Paragraphs
So far, we’ve only applied paragraph styles to single-line headers. Next, we need to create styles for our paragraphs. Before we do that, we’re going to align all our body text, including the subheads, to the document’s baseline grid.
Select all of your text. Now, either open the Paragraph window (Windows > Type & Tables > Paragraph or Ctrl + Alt + T), or find the Paragraph section of the Properties window.
Near the bottom of that window are two buttons: Do not align to baseline grid and Align to baseline grid. Click the second one, and all of the text will be aligned to the document’s baseline grid.
You can adjust this, but that’s a lesson for another time. As a result of this change, we won't have lines of text that don't align with each other.
Right now, we need to tweak our Subheads style, because the increase we made to the leading is no longer big enough. Increasing the Leading to 30 fixes this.
Altering our first subhead causes our Subheads paragraph style to change to Subheads+, which indicates this text has diverged from its paragraph style. Click the Clear Overrides button at the bottom of the Paragraph Styles window to revert to the defined style.
Now double-click the Subheads Paragraph Style to open its Paragraph Style Options. Click Basic Character Formats, set the Leading to 30, and click Ok. All of your subheads will now be formatted the same way.
You can use everything you’ve learned so far to create a Body Text paragraphs style. Ours is Minion Pro in Black at 9pt. The Tracking is at 0, the Leading is set to 12pt, and it has a 5mm indent on the first line of the paragraph.
Place the type cursor in the text you want to apply the style to, and then click the Body Text paragraph style. If it spans several paragraphs, click and drag to select them all. Don’t select your subheads.
This is how our document looks so far.
We don’t want the indent on our opening paragraphs, though, or in the paragraphs below our subheads. We can create a new style, Body Text No Indent, to fix this.
You can do this by right-clicking on the Body Text style and then selecting Duplicate Style. Or, you can make the change to one paragraph, and then click the Plus icon in the Paragraph Styles window. Apply this wherever you want.
In Paragraph Style Options, you can also create dependencies by basing styles on other styles.
Save Time With InDesign’s Next Style Option
InDesign can automatically assign paragraph styles with just a few clicks. To demonstrate, we’ve deleted all but our first paragraph of body text, using our Body Text No Indent paragraph style.
In the Paragraph Style Options panel for that style, click Next Style. Select Body Text from the dropdown menu, and click Ok.
Now, whenever you press Enter while using the Body Text No Indent style, the next line will automatically use the Body Text paragraph style.
You can do the same thing with the text that follows your subheads. This time, select Body Text No Indent from the Next Style menu.
Now, whenever you write a subhead using the Subheads paragraph style, pressing Enter will automatically apply Body Text No Indent to the next line. Press Enter again, and it will apply the Body Text paragraph style.
Using InDesign Character Styles
Sometimes, you only want to apply formatting to a small part of your text, without affecting the rest of the paragraph. This is where character styles are useful.
As an example, we want to highlight certain words using a different color, bolding, and italics. Select a word or character you want to highlight, and change its formatting to whatever you want. We’ve chosen Minion Pro Bold Italic, and we’ve changed the color to Pink.
Next, with that character or word selected, click the Plus button in the Character Styles window, and rename your new style. Ours is called “Pink Highlight”.
You can now apply this character style just as you did with the paragraph styles. Notice that it doesn’t affect the underlying paragraph style. The indents, for example, stay as they are.
Most of the time, you should use paragraph styles to save formatting information. On the other hand, you should use character styles more sparingly.
The Basics of InDesign Paragraph and Character Styles
InDesign is an extraordinarily rich piece of software. What we’ve covered here is the fundamentals of paragraph styles—enough for you to complete most projects.
Paragraph styles and character styles are just one way that InDesign can save you time. It’s worth exploring the Paragraph Style Options panel a bit more to see just how much you can do. We haven't covered the Character Style Options panel, but it works in pretty much the same way.
Page numbers are an essential part of most multipage documents. They help readers keep track of their progress, as well as find different parts of the document. Whether you’re designing a short brochure or a whole magazine, you can add page numbers in InDesign in just a few quick steps.
If you do it right, InDesign will fill in all your page numbers for you automatically. It will even update them if you move pages around or take pages out.
Here’s everything you need to know about how to insert page numbers into InDesign.
How to Add InDesign Page Numbers Manually
If you want to, you could add page numbers manually, one by one, but we wouldn’t recommend it. This would involve creating a separate text frame on every page and then typing the current page number into it.
Even if you have that text frame built into your Master Pages, it’s not a good idea to do it this way. A basic text frame on your Master Page would enable you to store the styling and the position of your page number, but not much else. Most importantly, it would not change automatically if you decide to reorganize the pages in your document.
Inserting page numbers in InDesign manually is also labor-intensive and inefficient. It’s a much better idea to use automatic page numbering instead.
How to Use InDesign Automatic Page Numbering
Whether you’re laying out a Master Page or a regular page in your document, you can easily add numbers to them with a few clicks.
To demonstrate, we’re going to add the current page number of our document to our headline. In this current layout, that’s number four.
To add the current page number, select Type > Insert Special Character > Markers > Current Page Number. You can also insert InDesign page numbers from the context menu. To open it, right-click the text where you want your page number to appear, and select Insert Special Character > Markers > Current Page Number.
InDesign has now inserted the current page number into our title. This is automatic, and it updates if you move this page to another part of your document.
To demonstrate this, let’s move the whole spread forward a couple of pages. The four automatically changes to a six. The Pages window shows your current page layout and how your pages are numbered.
You can use the same technique to add page numbers in a more traditional position at the bottom of your pages. We’re going to do that in our Master Pages, so we don’t have to do it repeatedly.
We’ve created a black text box on the bottom of our Master Pages, where our page numbers will go. We then use the context menu to insert the current page number marker.
You can copy this text frame anywhere else you want it to appear, and it will behave in the same way, automatically inserting the current page number. We’ve copied it to the second page of our Master spread.
Now, if you head to any other page based on this Master, the page numbers will be automatically filled in.
Building page numbers straight into your Master Pages like this will allow you to quickly apply them across multiple pages in your document.
How to Change Page Numbers
By default, InDesign pages are numbered in a straightforward linear fashion. So the first page of your document will be number one, and every subsequent page number will increase by one.
While that makes sense for most documents, there are situations where you might want to do things differently.
You might, for example, not want your front cover or the inside front cover to count as pages one and two of your document. This is certainly the case with some books, where the covers aren't part of the page count. In such cases, page one would be the third page in your InDesign Pages window.
Sometimes, books also use a different numbering format for introductory sections—Roman numerals are common in those cases.
To change the numbering in InDesign, select the page you want to be number one in the Pages window. To demonstrate, we’re going to turn page three into page one. Right-click page three in the Pages window, and click Numbering & Section Options. You can also find this under Layout in the main menu.
In the panel that opens, you have a variety of settings you can change. Click Start Page Numbering at, and set it to one. Click OK.
You’ll see a warning about pages in your document having the same number. Basically, it can cause problems when you try to print or export your document. Ignore this for now, and click OK.
There is now a new section in the document, starting from the third page. What used to be page three is now page one, and the pages that follow have been updated too.
But the cover and inside cover are still labeled one and two as well. You'll need to change this if you want to print or export your document.
One way to fix this is to use a different numbering system for these pages. Right-click on page one and open the Numbering & Section Options panel again.
Under Page Numbering, click Style, and choose one of the options from the dropdown menu. We’ve gone with Roman numerals.
The pages in this section now use Roman numerals.
Another way to get around this problem is to give each new section of your document a unique prefix. To do so, open Numbering & Section Options, and fill in the Section Prefix box. In our case, we give our new section a prefix of "A."
There are now pages in our document called A1, A2, and so on. This makes them distinct from pages one and two, which don't have a prefix.
You can also create new sections in your document without changing page numbers. Just leave Automatic Page Numbering selected in the Numbering & Section panel.
You can still use section prefixes here as well. This can be useful if you want to print or export specific sections of your document at any time.
Adding Section Markers and Other Page Numbers With InDesign
When you create a new section, you’ll find that there’s a Section Marker option in the Numbering & Sections panel. Fill this in how you want. We’ve broken our document up into Part One and Part Two.
Now, when you go to Type > Insert Special Character > Marker > Section Marker, InDesign will import whatever text you defined in Numbering & Section Options.
There may also be times when you want to refer to something on the previous or next page. In that case, you can insert either of those numbers just as you would with the current page number—either from the right-click context menu or from the Type menu.
Improve Your InDesign Documents With Page Numbers
You can add page numbers to your InDesign documents in a few different ways. For very short documents, it might be okay to do it manually, page by page.
However, it’s usually better to use InDesign’s automatic page numbering. Not only will this fill in all your page numbers for you, but it will also update them if you make changes to the order of the pages in your document.
Automatic page numbering is just one way InDesign helps you build documents. If you're working with a lot of text, there are some more advanced features that you should know about.
Adding subtitles or closed captions to your YouTube videos is useful for a number of different reasons. You don't need special software to do it either—YouTube already provides all the tools you need in YouTube Studio.
You can use YouTube's subtitle tools in a few different ways, some of which take much more time than others. This guide will show you how to add subtitles to your YouTube videos, as well as how to save time by using automatically-generated captions.
Why Add Subtitles to YouTube Videos?
Subtitles in YouTube videos are useful for many reasons. For starters, they make your content accessible to people with hearing impairments.
They also enable viewers to watch your videos with the sound off. And, of course, they can be used to provide foreign language translations if your videos have an international audience.
To manually add subtitles to your YouTube videos, the first thing you need to do is open YouTube Studio. Click on your profile in the top-right of YouTube, and select YouTube Studio.
You’ll be taken to your YouTube channel dashboard. This shows you some basic stats about your YouTube channel, such as your total number of subscribers and your top videos. There’s also some information here geared towards content creators.
You can upload videos from here as well. If the video you want to add subtitles to is already uploaded, you can get started. If it’s not, click the Upload Videos button, and upload your content as you would with any other YouTube video.
Once your video is uploaded, it’s time to start working on the subtitles. Select Subtitles from the menu on the left side of YouTube Studio. This will take you to the Channel subtitles page. From here, choose the video you want to work on.
To demonstrate, we've chosen a 30-second clip from the 1959 sci-fi movie Teenagers from Outer Space, purely for its name and the fact that it's in the public domain.
YouTube will have already created some subtitle options for you. In our case, the first one is English (Automatic), and the second option is English (United Kingdom) (Video Language).
These will differ depending on the language that YouTube detects in your video and your own YouTube language settings.
If you choose the option that includes (Video Language), you’ll be able to add your own subtitles. Not only can you add captions and change timings with this setting, but you can also add subtitles by typing them in manually, uploading a file, or using auto-sync.
If you want to add your own subtitles manually, you can make it easier by toggling the Pause while typing tick box below the video preview. This will enable you to play the video and have it automatically pause while you add your captions.
It might take some practice to get this right, but it’s a big time saver once you’re used to it.
You can start adding subtitles by clicking the Caption button at the top left corner of the window. Each time you press Enter, it will create a new caption. This will automatically add timings as well, which you can edit afterwards using the basic timeline at the bottom of the captioning window.
You can also choose Edit as text, and write everything out as a single piece of text. In this mode, hitting Enter twice will turn the next line into a new caption. Hitting it once will create a line break in that caption, so you can have multiple lines appear on your screen at once.
Customizing Automatically Generated Subtitles
Manually typing video subtitles can be a long, painstaking process. Not only do you need to get all the words right, but you have to ensure your timing makes sense too. If you’re not a fast typist, that makes the task even more challenging.
YouTube’s auto-generated subtitles take a lot of that pain away. They detect dialog in videos and use speech recognition to turn it into text. They can even translate speech into different languages.
By default, YouTube's auto-generated subtitles are far from perfect, but with a little bit of tweaking, they can save you a significant amount of time and effort.
On the Channel subtitles page, click on the video you want to edit, and then locate the subtitle language option that says (Automatic). Select Duplicate and edit.
You can now start working on a copy of the auto-generated subtitles. How accurate they are will depend on the quality of the audio in your video, among other things.
In our case, the captions YouTube has generated for our clip are mostly accurate. There are a few instances of words being misheard, such as “watched” being interpreted as “lost," but it's close enough. And all the timing is perfect, so the subtitles appear on the screen as soon as the actors begin speaking.
The biggest problem is the complete lack of grammar and punctuation. The automatic subtitles are just one continuous chunk of text.
To fix this, the first thing you should do is add paragraph breaks where needed. Each break will be displayed as a separate caption. We’ve broken things mainly into single sentences.
YouTube Studio keeps all the timings as they were, so you shouldn’t need to edit this. If you do want to change when captions appear and for how long, use the timeline at the bottom of the subtitles window.
Now, it’s time to fix the punctuation and grammar. This is all straightforward—simply add some missing commas, periods, question marks, etc. It's also a good idea to correct any misheard words.
Once you’ve edited your subtitles to your liking, click Publish. You can also save your draft and come back to it later if you're not finished.
To make changes to your subtitles after you’ve published them, click Edit on the Video subtitles page.
Now, whenever anyone watches your video, they can select the subtitles you created. The auto-generated captions will also remain an option.
Adding a Different Language to YouTube Subtitles
You may want to provide a translation for foreign speakers. To do so, head to the Channel subtitles page, select the video you want to edit, and click Add language on the Video subtitles page. For this example, we've chosen French.
Click Add under Title & description, and you can add your video's information in your chosen language. There are various online translation services that can help you here.
Now click Edit, and you can start working on your translation. You can upload subtitles, type them manually, or use auto-translate.
If you’ve already edited your own subtitles, YouTube will use them as the basis of its translation—complete with punctuation and capital letters.
Improve Your YouTube Videos With Subtitles
Subtitles make your YouTube videos more accessible. By using auto-generated subtitles as a base, you can save yourself time and effort. Your subtitles can be clean and accurate, and your viewers will benefit.
Creating subtitles is just one of the many interesting things you can do with YouTube Studio. If you want to create better videos, it's well worth exploring all of its features.
If you're working on a multi-page document like a brochure or a magazine, you'll often have to use various common elements across different pages.
That's where InDesign Master Pages can be indispensable. By enabling you to reuse your basic layouts, they simplify your workflow and make it quicker to achieve the result you're after.
Read this guide, and before you know it, you'll have truly mastered Master Pages.
What Are InDesign Master Pages?
InDesign Master Pages are essentially templates you can use within documents. They allow you to reuse layouts, styles, and assets, thereby saving time and effort.
A Master Page might, for example, include a color scheme that's consistent throughout your document. It may also incorporate page numbers, a logo, and the title of your document, including any styling you have applied.
It's easy to see how this would be useful when creating something like a brochure or a magazine. Your front and back covers may have unique designs, but the rest of your pages will likely share some common elements.
If you put these common elements into Master Pages, you can apply them throughout your document and avoid unnecessary work.
Working With InDesign Master Pages
By default, when you create a new document, you'll already have a Master Page to work with in your Pages window.
If you don't have the Pages window open, go to Window > Pages, or hit F12. If you selected Facing Pages when you created your new document, then you'll have a double-page Master spread. Either way, it will be titled "A-Master."
As you can see below, all the pages in our Pages window have the letter "A" on them. This tells us they're linked to A-Master.
To demonstrate how to work with Master Pages, we're going to create a very simple magazine layout. The back and front covers will not be connected to Master Pages. Inside, we'll have two four-page articles, each using a different set of Master Pages.
We'll begin by creating our first Master Page spread. Double-click on A-Master in the Pages window to select it.
You can now start adding elements to A-Master. We've built a simple layout with page numbers in colored circles, a title bar at the top, and two columns on each page.
Return to your main document by double-clicking any of its pages in the Pages window. You'll see that your new design elements have been added to it.
Note that these elements are locked within the main pages of your document. To make changes to them, you need to head to your Master Pages again.
You'll also find that Master Page elements are always on the bottom layer. Anything you add while working on regular pages will sit on top of the Master Page items.
Unlinking Pages From InDesign Master Pages
For our purposes, we don't want our cover pages to use Master Pages, as we want them to have unique layouts. We need to unlink them from the Masters.
To do this, we will apply the [None] template in the Pages window. One way to do this is to click and drag [None] onto the pages you want to unlink from the Master Pages.
Alternatively, select the pages you want to change from the Pages window, then right-click, and select Apply Master to Pages.
Now, choose [None] and the pages you want to unlink. Click OK, and those pages should be blank.
You can now create your cover page. As you can see from our simple design below, our front cover has a layout without any of the Master Page elements included in it.
Overriding InDesign Master Page Items
By default, you can't edit Master Page items without going to the Master Pages themselves.
You can get around this by right-clicking pages in the Pages window and choosing Override All Master Page Items. The shortcut for this is Ctrl + Alt + Shift + L.
This will unlock all Master Page elements on those pages, so you can move and edit them. For example, that means we can now add text to the columns we set up in our Master Pages.
However, if you override Master Page items this way, it unlocks everything—including parts of your design you probably want to remain locked. That can result in elements moving accidentally, as shown here.
Thankfully, you can also override single Master Page items on a page. Just hold Ctrl + Shift on Windows or Cmd + Shift on Mac, and left-click on locked Master Page elements to make them editable.
By doing this, you can edit the parts of the page you need, all while leaving things like page numbers and titles untouched.
You can use more than one Master in a document. We're going to use this feature to create a second article layout with a different color scheme than our first.
To add a new Master Page, right-click the Master Page areas in the Pages window. Alternatively, click the menu button in the top-right of the Pages window (the four horizontal lines). Select New Master.
Now, you choose a prefix, a name, whether it's based on another Master Page, the number of pages, and the page size. If you base your new Master Page on [None], it will be blank.
If you choose to base a Master on another Master, InDesign will bring in all the Master items just as it would with a regular page. That means all A-Master items in B-Master, for example, will be locked until you override them. It also means changes to A-Master will be reflected in B-Master.
You can also create a copy of a Master by right-clicking on it in the Pages window and selecting Duplicate Master Spread. In this case, it will create a copy without any kind of dependency, so you can edit it immediately.
That's what we've chosen to do here. We've created a new color scheme and applied B-Master to our remaining pages.
To bring in Masters from other documents, open the menu in the top-right of the Pages window. Select Master Pages > Load Master Pages.
Now, choose the document that holds the Master Pages you want to import. You'll be prompted to rename them if there are any conflicts.
You can also turn any pages into a new Master. Select any pages you want to include in the Pages window, and then open the menu using the button in the top-right.
Click Master Pages > Save New Master. InDesign will add a new Master to your Pages window.
Create Layouts Faster With InDesign Master Pages
For simple one or two-page documents without repeated design elements, you may not need to use Master Pages. But they really come in handy when you start to create longer, multi-page layouts.
If you need to use the same parts of a layout throughout your document, Master Pages enable you to do it quickly and with minimal effort.
You can create Master Pages based on other Master Pages, too. That means you can layer them and create dependencies. And if you need to override Master Page items, you can do it one at a time or unlink everything all at once.
By using all of these techniques together, you can easily produce large documents without repeating the same actions over and over. It can easily improve your InDesign workflow, saving you a substantial amount of time.
Whether you’re buying a pair of shoes with foreign sizing or trying to work out the difference between an imperial and metric ton, unit conversion tools can be a huge help. No need to tax your gray matter with complicated arithmetic---just type in a quantity, select the units you’re interested in, and the app spits out an answer.
These six unit conversion apps for Android make it a breeze to calculate everything from height and weight to frequency wavelengths and radioactive decay.
1. Unit Converter Pro
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Despite its name, Unit Converter Pro isn’t the premium version of a free app. In fact, it’s a completely free app without ads or in-app purchases.
Unit Converter Pro enables you to convert various different units, including depth, currency, data, and so on. By default, it displays the most common units, but if you tap the Show More button at the top, it will also show more specialist ones, such as capacitance, frequency wavelength, and HVAC efficiency.
The units are all ordered alphabetically, so it’s relatively simple to find what you’re looking for. That can mean quite a lot of scrolling, though, so you may want to use the search function. Note, however, it doesn’t accept European spellings such as "centimetre". You can also edit the units in this list, to change their order or toggle their visibility.
If you can’t find the unit you’re looking for, you can add your own custom units in the settings.
Sometimes, less is more, and that could well be the case with Unit Converter. Rather than presenting a long list of units for you to pick from, it displays just a few at a time, which you can edit to your liking.
Units are grouped into four broad categories: Basic, Living, Science, and Misc. These are presented as tabs, under which are four unit types. Apart from the Basic tab, you can change what’s displayed under a tab by tapping Favorites at the top. You’re still limited to four unit types, but there’s an extensive list to choose from---not as many as some other apps but enough for everyday use.
Unit Converter isn’t the most advanced unit conversion app, but it’s easy to navigate and good for anyone who converts the same things a lot. We also like that you can remove ads for six hours by watching one video ad.
There is an ad-free premium version too, but it’s worth noting that for just a little more, you can buy Smart Tools from the same developer. This includes the same unit converter, as well as other tools, such as a compass and a sound analyzer.
Created by the Toastguyz development community, Electricity Converter aims to do one thing and do it well: it’s focused simply on converting electrical units. They range from basics like current and charge to more specialist units like linear current density, electric potential, and electrostatic capacitance.
There are only 15 unit types to choose from, but they’re laid out clearly in a straightforward tile format. Just tap one, and it will take you to a separate screen, where you enter quantities and units.
Electricity Converter also provides brief explanations of what each unit type is. That, combined with the narrow focus of the app, suggests it would be ideal for trainee electricians and students.
It doesn’t support as many advanced data types as other unit conversion apps, but it covers all the basics, as well as things like shoe and ring sizes.
You can use All-In-One Calculator to work out a range of math problems too. They include calculating the price of an item after a discount, prime checking, and the volume of 3D objects. You can add favorites to the main screen for quick access.
It’s a good-looking app, with an attractive layout and plenty of color schemes to try.
Engineering Unit Converter is another app that focuses on one particular field. That could be ideal if you don’t want to sift through a list of unit types you’re not interested in.
Unit types include the basics, such as length and mass, as well as advanced units like kinematic viscosity and magnetic flux. There are over 20 of them, but they’re not sorted alphabetically. There’s also no search function, so you will need to scroll to find what you want.
The actual unit conversion part of the app is straightforward. Simply type a quantity in the left column, and the conversion appears in the column on the right. Below that are a number of radio buttons representing particular units.
Engineering Unit Converter isn’t feature-rich, and there are very few settings to play with, but it’s clutter-free and straight to the point.
Unit Converter from Digit Grove is one of the better-looking unit conversion apps for Android. It uses a variety of eye-catching icons to represent different unit types, and they’re all laid out neatly and logically.
Units are grouped under various categories: Common, Engineering, Fluids, Electricity, Computer, Light, Time, Magnet, Radiology, and Medical. There are 60 kinds of units in total.
But Unit Converter is more than just a conversion app. It also includes tools for working out common mathematical problems and finance-related matters such as interest rates. Plus it has 34 miscellaneous tools, like a morse code translator, a cryptography encoder, a metronome, and a password generator.
As well as removing ads, the premium version enables you to download conversions to your phone and to create your own custom units.
You can ask Google Assistant a specific question like "What’s 10 kilograms in pounds?", and it will bring up the answer. Below the answer will be a basic conversion tool, where you can select unit types and enter quantities.
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So why bother with a separate app?
If you only want to make the occasional calculation, you probably don't need one. But if you want to convert several quantities at once or if you do it frequently, it soon becomes quicker to use a dedicated app.
They can also be better if you want to see a unit broken down into more than one type of alternative unit. So, for instance, many of the apps will show you a split into yards, feet, and inches all at once.
Unlike Google Assistant, these apps don’t require an internet connection either. If you can’t get online for whatever reason, that’s clearly going to be a major plus point.
Finally, many unit conversion apps support some fairly unusual or esoteric unit types, which Google Assistant doesn’t. That makes them suitable for people who work in specialist fields. And in that capacity, they might work well alongside toolbox apps that enable you to use your phone to take measurements.